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Imperator: Rome defines 80 Technologies, grouped into four fields of technology (Martial, Civic, Oratory and Religious), divided into 20 levels of technology each. The 80 Technologies do not have individual names. Technology can be accessed though the Top bar technology.png Technology-button.

Each state automatically progresses from its starting level to next level, driven by the generated Research Points plus modifiers. The total amount of generated Research Points plus modifiers are distributed evenly among the four fields, except the modifier contributed by the character leading the research field, making it possible to advance at differences paces in each field! Purchased Inventions and access to certain trade-goods act as modifiers, i.e. they increase the speed of research.

Each technology-field can have one researcher assigned to it. The finesse of this character impacts the speed with which research is done in that field. This character gets prominence from holding the position, and gets permanent prominence from each month holding the position. Changing researcher increases loyalty in the new researcher, and dramatically drops it in the one being replaced.

The total amount of pops of a state, determines the cost of the next level of technology. As a result of that, it is not the total amount of Citizen-type pops, but rather their share of the total population, which determines the speed of research.

At 100% efficiency, with 25% of the pops being citizens, with no marketplaces researching a level – as a very rough rule of thumb – should takes about 15 years, no matter how big the state!

Each level gives the state a higher bonus in that category, unlocks three Inventions per category and reduces the cost of Inventions by 5%. Unlocked Inventions can be purchased for 100 Civic power.png Civic Power Points each, but do not have to be purchased in order for the research to advance.


Martial Advances

  • +0.1 Naval Morale
  • +0.1 Land Morale
  • +2% Army Maintenance Cost
  • +2% Navy Maintenance Cost
  • -25% Military Tradition Cost

Civic Advances

Oratory Advances

Religious Advances


While the advances are tied directly to your nation’s progress and are slowly gained through the years, there are also inventions around at game start, that you can spend civic power on to get immediately. The standard cost is 100 civic power, which can be influenced by technology and various other factors.

As your technology level progresses, different inventions will be added to the random pool that populates the inventions list. There are 3 inventions from each of the four areas available, assuming that there are at least 12 inventions, which are unlocked but not yet invented.

Martial Inventions

Tech Level Name Modifier Description
0 Professional Sailors Trireme Discipline: +2% Relying on career sailors, we can be assured that our navies will be crewed by the very best.
0 Learning on the Job Starting Experience: +5% It is said that the best way to learn, is by doing. We expect that our recruits will learn swiftly, with a sword in their hands. Or they will die.
0 Military Artisans Military Technology Investment: +5% Guilds of artisans, employed by the military, ensure that innovation is passed down to those deserving, and provide a hotbed of scholarly thought by which our progress flourishes.
1 Supernumerarii Supply Limit: +10% An auxiliary group of enlisted men, the supernumerarii acted as reinforcements, orderlies, and performed other non-specific duties.
1 Extraordinary Ordnance Siege Ability: +10% Throughout Antiquity, examples of unusual siege ammunition can be found. Snakes, severed body parts, and incendiary substances were used to demoralize or enrage opponents.
1 Fustuarium Heavy Infantry Discipline: +10% There is nothing that inspires a soldier as much as the fear of a shameful death
2 Sapping Siege Engineers: +1 Purportedly used during the siege of Veii, long tunnels could be built underneath the fortifications of enemies, allowing access, or even the chance to damage enemy walls.
2 Pentaspastos Fort Defense: +5% The Pentaspastos was an innovative Greek crane, ideal for constructing defensive walls, buildings, and fortresses.
2 Material Science Military Tradition Cost: -10% Concrete, carburization, bronzework, and even the working of wood, contribute directly to the development of military technology. Harder steel in particular, allows numerous innovations previously thought impossible. In Rome, the Praefectus Fabrum oversaw the dissemination of various military innovations directly.
3 Boeotian Helmet Discipline: +5% The boeotian helmet, favored by Alexander himself, allowed good vantage of one's surroundings, while still providing protection to the cranium.
3 Centuria Trireme Discipline: +2% Establishing a command cadre on board each vessel, delineates between the common oarsmen, and the tactical elite.
3 Galley Slaves Navy Maintenance Cost: -10% Whilst many of our crew should continue to be professional oarsmen, relying on galley slaves during times of need, will reduce our operating costs.
4 Paymasters Army Maintenance Cost: -10% Placing the oversight of army pay in the hands of shrewd and incorruptible men, we might find that we save a surprising amount of gold.
4 Fighting Season Supply Limit: -10% Knowledge of the weather, clime, and seasonal patterns, is vital when raising armies and waging war. By paying attention to these signs, we can better prepare our forces.
4 Coastal Defense Forts Pirate Spawn Chance: -10% The act of creating coastal defense forts was often to provide a safe haven for local villagers during pirate attacks, rather than active defense against raids.
5 Naval Supply Lines Siege Engineers: +1 Coastal sieges were particularly harsh, as often, enemy cities could resupply by sea. By establishing our own system of patrol and resupply, we cut off all our foes' hope.
5 Basic Training Starting Experience: +5% Providing new recruits with the most basic of training may at least let them survive the first few swings.
5 Military Sponsors Monthly General Loyalty: +2% Ensuring that every general we recruit has the backing of a certain number of loyal and upstanding peers, guarantees that we will weed out any that are likely to misuse their office.
6 Siege Towers Siege Ability: +5% During the siege of Rhodes, Demetrios employed towering siege engines to attempt to scale the walls of the Rhodian city.
6 Scorched Earth Hostile Attrition: +1 Knowing that enemy forces will soon be crossing our lands, we can ensure that any potential supplies are moved, or simply destroyed.
6 Professional Training Cohort Recruitment Speed: +10% By relying only on the most skilled tutors, we cut down on the time it takes to produce adequately informed fighting men.
7 Manipular Legion Discipline: +5% Originating somewhere in the south of Italy, this logistic fighting force was a collection of 'maniples'. Each maniple consisted of 120 men organized as a cohesive unit, fighting in concert with any number of additional maniples.
7 Vault and Dome Fort Defense: +5% Rome pioneered the usage of arches for bridge building, allowing for huge tasks to be completed in a fraction of the time.
7 Siege Ladders Assault Ability: +5% Storming a fortified position, whilst sometimes utilizing great siege engines, could often be achieved through more conventional means. Enough men and ladders, and any fort will fall, casualties notwithstanding.
8 Squadrons Trireme Discipline: +2% Assigning every ship to a squadron will allow them to fight together as a cohesive unit, in the heat of battle.
8 Scorpio Siege Engineers: +1 A small, antipersonnel variant of the siege ballista, the scorpion was deployed to deadly effect during prolonged sieges.
8 Blacksmith Apprentices Heavy Infantry Cost: -10% With more hands at their disposal our blacksmiths are sure to be more effective than ever before.
9 Investment Siege Ability: +5% The process of surrounding a fortified location with secondary fortifications, served as a means of entirely dissociating them from the outside world.
9 Patterned Construction Ship Recruitment Speed: +10% Maintaining specified construction standards for our vessels is a sure way to increase the speed at which our shipyards can produce them.
9 Praefectus Fabrum Military Technology Investment: +5% The military logistics and research arm of the Roman military oversaw various innovations, and their dissemination throughout the standing army.
10 Veteran Enticements Discipline: +5% Encouraging retired soldiers to sign up to serve once again, will greatly increase the fighting experience of our armies.
10 Ship's Surgeon Navy Attrition: -10% By ensuring that every vessel has at least one crewmen knowledgeable in the arts of healing, we can avoid many of the casualties we would otherwise incur at sea.
10 Active Drill Experience Decay: -10% Armies in the field would benefit from continued drill, even up to the very eve of battle.
11 Logistics Division Supply Limit: +10% Our flourishing army requires a dedicated supply and logistics division to ensure that we always maintain peak efficiency.
11 Recruitment Standards Starting Experience: +5% We should aim to populate our armies with those capable of holding their own in battle.
11 Standardized Provisioning Fort Maintenance: -10% Ensuring our fortifications and their garrisons are well stocked, repaired, and manned with only the most necessary personnel will keep maintenance costs down.
12 Fortified Camps Fort Defense: +5% We shall teach our armies the skills required to build fortified camps, using only the materials available around them..
12 Retirement Opportunities Army Maintenance Cost: -10% By splitting the expected pay of soldiers into salary and retirement opportunities such as farmland, we profit off the fact that many will simply not live long enough to claim it.
12 Tormenta Siege Engineers: +1 All manner of siege engines fit into the category of 'tormenta', often firing kinetic or incendiary projectiles intended to cause devastation and panic.
13 Contravallation Siege Ability: +5% An extension of circumvallation, this tactic involved constructing a further ring of outward facing away from the encircled fort, preventing any enemy armies from breaking the siege.
13 Quick March Army Movement Speed: +10% Gone are the days of rag-tag bands of soldiers wandering from place to place. By marching in regimented columns, we are sure to avoid wasted time.
13 Scythian Saddles Heavy Cavalry Discipline: +10% With better saddles, our cavalry are sure to be more comfortable riding their horses and have more control of their mounts while engaged in combat.
14 Promotion Through Valor Discipline: +5% Promoting troops based on their actions provides every man a reason to perform the the best of their ability.
14 Entrenchment Fort Defense: +5% When our armies are deployed in one location for a significant period of time, they could better use their time by constructing trenches to slow the advance of potential enemies..
14 Reinforced Rostra Trireme Discipline: +2% Developments in metalworking allow us to better brace our ships when constructing the ram.
15 Delayed Baggage Train Supply Limit: +25% The capture of the baggage train proved to be the downfall of many famous generals. By requiring a sizable delay between supplies, families, and our armies during active military operations, we might avoid an embarrassing incident.
15 Elite Recruitment Standards Starting Experience: +5% The availability of veteran soldiers is at a level where we can devote at least a portion of recruitment to them alone.
15 Enhanced Training Grounds Reinforcement Speed: +5% With designated training grounds set aside for our recruits, we have significantly reduced the amount of time needed to prepare our men to become a part of the military.
16 Siege Ramps Siege Engineers: +1 The use of siege towers and battering rams was often rendered ineffective due to adverse terrain. The practice of constructing great ramps of earth or rubble, towards enemy fortifications, allowed siege engines to pass unhindered.
16 Army Surgeons Army Weight Modifier: -10% Attaching a small medical division to active armies, we can reduce the amount of avoidable casualties associated with simply maintaining a large force.
16 Tactical Withdrawal Retreat Delay: -2 At times it is imperative to prepare your men for a tactical withdrawal, so you can return from a stronger position later on.
17 Honesta Missio Navy Maintenance Cost: -10% Ensuring that sailors receive a vast portion of their pay upon discharge, we can avoid paying those that never make it that far...
17 Lateen Sails Naval Movement Speed: +10% A method of rigging sails, the lateen allowed ships to tack against the wind, greatly improving maneuverability.
17 Routine Patrols Pirate Spawn Chance: -10% Establishing a series of routine patrols along the coasts of common raiding sites will surely discourage piracy in the area.
18 Ballistae Siege Ability: +5% Resembling huge crossbows, ballistae could fire vast kinetic payloads, capable of breaking walls, bodies, and morale.
18 Veteran Reassignment Experience Decay: -10% By taking an active role in ensuring that more experienced veterans are placed alongside newer recruits, we will ensure that valuable skills and knowledge retain their value for much longer.
18 Experienced Seafarers Blockade Efficiency: +20% If we want to be respected for our naval prowess, we are forced to invite and recruit the most experienced sailors at sea no matter their background.
19 Polyspaston Fort Defense: +20% A variant of the earlier Greek model, this crane lifted even greater weights, making huge fortifications much more viable.
19 Central Reserve Supply Limit: +25% Maintaining a centralized store of vital military equipment will ensure that we always have the ability to keep our fighting forces supplied.
19 Mangonel Siege Engineers: +2 The mangonel is said to have originated in China, and spread westwards over the next several centuries. Capable of hurling a projectile vastly further than any previous siege engine, it was sure to strike fear into any potential defenders.
20 Cohorts Discipline: +10% The Cohort developed after the Marian reforms were enacted in Rome. Each sub-unit of a legion was enlarged to consist of 480 fighting me, alongside various logistics specialists.
20 Multi-Discipline Training Starting Experience: +5% By teaching recruits the basics of all possible martial disciplines, they will have much better knowledge of how to fit in to a functioning military force.
20 Harpax Trireme Discipline: +10% These ship-board catapults fired grappling hooks, providing ample opportunities for boarding, and the nullification of enemy vessels.

Civic Inventions

Tech Level Name Modifier Description
0 Standardized Measures National Commerce Income: +5% The amphora capitolina was an amphora kept in the temple of Jupiter, by which all other amphora were intended to be measured.
0 Property Tax National Tax: +5% Landowners are every state's main source of revenue; by establishing a code of practice, we can avoid difficult situations when it comes to collection.
0 Tribal Reserve National Tribesman Output: +5% Officially recognizing certain areas as belonging to the control of specific tribal people, is bound to increase their willingness to contribute.
1 Logistics Bureau Capital Import Routes: +1 Our burgeoning state is beginning to struggle under its own weight. A dedicated logistics administration must be instituted to handle the flow of traders and merchants into our capital.
1 Pythagorean Mathematics Research Points: +10% The ancient Greek, Pythagoras, was a mathematician and philosopher of legendary repute. Embracing the practical aspects of his theories will have numerous scientific applications.
1 Advanced Wall Construction Civic Tech Investment: +5% The need for greater defensive walls had great influence on the development of civic architecture. With masons employing ever-more innovative methods to construct buttresses and towers, so too did grand civic structures begin to soar to the heavens.
2 Devolved Responsibility National Tribesman Output: +5% Granting minor ethnic groups the right to self-governance lessens the burden on the state, and increases the efficiency of the tribal society in question.
2 Peregrini Wrong Culture Happiness: +5% By granting a specific status to outsiders, we can recognize them legally and domestically, as members of our state; value notwithstanding.
2 Rights of Man National Slave Output: +10% Slave treatment varies wildly from state to state, but we believe that a basic code of human rights will encourage our slaves to work harder.
3 State Harbor Fees National Commerce Income: +5% Implementing a small fee on the use of our ports is unlikely to affect footfall, and will earn us a little more from trade.
3 De Architectura Build Cost: -10% Written by Marcus Vitruvius Pollo in the late 1st Century BC, De Architectura was a series of treatises on Roman architecture. The practices mentioned within were detailed in extraordinary fashion, giving incredible insight as to the advanced building methods of the time.
3 Right to be Heard National Citizen Output: +5% Acknowledging the right for our nobles to make their argument before the authorities will vastly increase their tendency to work within the system, and not without.
4 Eisphora National Tax: +5% The Greeks had an ephemeral taxation system, but the practice of levying a wealth tax during times of crisis was a valuable addition to the treasury.
4 Code of Rights National Freeman Output: +2.5% An established code, detailing the rights of every non-landowning member of our society, is likely to please the majority.
4 River Barges Capital Import Routes: +1 The needs of our capital must be served - operating regular grain barges from the coast to the point nearest our capital will alleviate some of the burden on private traders.
5 Moral Education Research Points: +10% More important than any school of mathematics, is the study of how to behave, and how to apply reason to any situation. Teaching our children this at an early age, will usher in a new era of philosophy.
5 Land Tithe National Tribesman Output: +5% Tolerating foreign tribesmen on our land can make some uneasy, but the institution of a tithe on the land they occupy is likely to calm those voices, and earn us a pretty penny in the meantime.
5 Ius Honorarium Enact Law Cost: -10% Yielding to the magistrates, the right to amend, supplement and correct existing laws, lessens the need for our government to pass judgment on iterations of the same law, numerous times.
6 River Outposts Province Import Routes: +1 Trade flows with the tide, they say, but the rivers are the veins and arteries of our commercial network. Establishing regular outposts along them will give traders a sense of security, and attract greater investment.
6 Expanded Financial Remit Monthly Wages for Characters: -10% Offices such as that of the Quaestors of Rome were imbued with judicial power, and supervised the financial affairs of state. Expanding the remit of these persons will give them greater ability to root out financial wrongdoing, and corrupt behavior.
6 Overseers National Slave Output: +10% A Vilicus, in Rome, was an often well-treated slave, who was elevated over his or her brethren. This practice often resulted in easier communication with the slave population of any given enterprise.
7 Movement of Water Civic Tech Investment: +5% Mills, aqueducts, and primitive engines, all developed due to the need for flowing water within the confines of a city. This technology drove further innovation, eventually resulting in sawmills and complex irrigation.
7 Slave Latifundia Slaves needed for Surplus: -1 The establishment of vast plantations, mines, or other specialized land dedicated to production, populated largely by slaves or working class persons, vastly improves the efficiency of our resource gathering. Such latifundia were often distributed after conquest, to entrepreneurial private citizens, commanders, and those willing to pay for them.
7 Hypocaust National Citizen Output: +5% The Romans pioneered the creation of underfloor heating. Using a complex system of flues and furnaces, the hypocaust was a rare, but prestigious addition to villas and bathhouses.
8 Lighthouses National Commerce Income: +5% Construction of lighthouses is an absolute necessity to keep the flow of trade safe in our nation. The concept of lighthouses developed from simple hill-fires, to grand edifices such as the lighthouse at Alexandria.
8 Pedagoguery Research Points: +10% Encouraging those of means to employ renowned pedagogues, should ensure that the elite possess a surfeit of intelligence when coming of age.
8 Curb the Tax Collectors National Freeman Output: +2.5% The powers of tax collectors vary widely from nation to nation. Limiting their use of coercion will make valuable inroads towards promoting the flourishing of the middle classes.
9 Liturgies National Tax: +5% The Greeks created a system whereby wealthy individuals were required to sponsor one of a number of different public works. Ranging from dramatic tragedies to regiment formation, we are sure to find this system helpful.
9 Tribal Advocates National Tribesman Output: +5% Appointing advocates to speak on behalf of foreign tribal societies within our borders, gives them a voice within our political process.
9 Coloniae Move Freeman Cost: -20% The Roman colonization of Britain was a classic example of the practice that had been employed by the Greeks in their conquest of Persia and Egypt. Granting land to soldiers and their families, acted as a standing garrison in recently conquered territories.
10 Maritime Patrols Province Import Routes: +1 Piracy was a huge issue in the Mediterranean - until the eradication of the Cilician pirates by Pompey in 66 BC, a strong maritime presence was required to safeguard civilian and military vessels.
10 Granted Manumission Freeman Promotion Cost: -10% Enabling slave owners to release their slaves with genuine legal status, is vital to the continued co-existence of owner and slave.
10 Religious Assimilation Convert Pop Cost: -20% The practice of integrating foreign beliefs into the pantheistic structure of the Roman religion, made it much easier to assimilate distrustful foreigners into the republic.
11 The Father of Geometry Research Points: +10% Euclid of Alexandria, a prolific mathematician and scholar, developed the first coherent study of geometry. The basic premises he describes should be taught across our nation.
11 Cultural Judiciary Wrong Culture Happiness: +5% Permitting the devolved rule of law as regards provincial cultures, will relieve the burden on our governors, and will keep the indigenous population content.
11 Cultural Administration Assimilate Pop Cost: -10% Adopting our culture is a mark of prestige, and is a right only given out to our most esteemed foreign citizens.
12 Regulated Money Lenders National Commerce Income: +5% The plight of the poor is rarely relieved by money lenders, but we must accept that they are a necessary evil. Instituting financial regulations, however, may at least let us profit from them.
12 Waste Disposal Infrastructure National Citizen Output: +5% Developed in eons past, the idea of a unified waste disposal architecture is still a lofty goal. Clean streets, and public bathhouses are sure to increase the quality of living.
12 Public Slavery National Slave Output: +10% Slaves owned by the state were championed by various regimes. In Rome, a servus publicus would perform one of a number of civic duties, ranging from basic servile tasks, to menial bureaucratic work.
13 Right to Religious Observance National Tribesman Output: +5% In most cases, the religion that any given tribe practices, is of no consequence to us. Therefore, giving them limited protection over the rights to practice exotic beliefs is a small price to pay for their security.
13 Water Pumps National Freeman Output: +2.5% In every major city, the dangers of fire are muttered about with bated breath. The installation of water pumps in key locations, allows the good men and women of our nation to combat these risks.
13 Prestigious Trade Goods Create Trade Route Cost: -25% Our merchants and traders have spent years building up a certain flare and some prestige around the goods being exported from our nation, and so more people would like the chance to grow closer and take part in our trade deals.
14 Encourage Exploration Province Import Routes: +1 There are still unknown lands to the east - by encouraging our brave citizens to venture further afield, we can flood our market with exotic items of all kinds.
14 Use of State Land National Tax: +5% The Mauryan empire levied a land usage tax on territories it considered as crown land. Aggressive zoning of this land can be a significant money-making opportunity.
14 Embracing Philosophy Research Points: +10% The various schools of philosophy arising out of Greece, and further afield, combine mathematics, theology, cosmology, and much more, to create a distinct world view. The study, debate, and intellectual sparring between these schools of thought is likely to fuel advancement in any number of fields.
15 Gromatici Build Roads Cost: -25% 'Rod Men', as they were otherwise known, assisted the primary surveyor in assessing the straightness of roads. These civil engineers were experts in their field, and greatly improved the efficiency of road building.
15 Petition of Minorities Wrong Culture Happiness: +5% Allowing accepted minority leaders to submit petitions on behalf of their people, at least gives them the opportunity to make their grievances known.
15 Earned Manumission National Slave Output: +10% Granting the right for publicly owned slaves to earn their freedom, gives an incentive for slaves to be calm and productive throughout their working lives.
16 Temporary Office Monthly Wages for Characters: -10% By reducing the time any single soldier holds a title in our military, they are less likely to have the time and means to take advantage of the system.
16 Clean Water National Citizen Output: +5% From simple wells, to grand aqueducts, the access to sanitary water is a right our higher classes demand.
16 State Fire Brigade National Freeman Output: +2.5% The first recorded official fire brigade was instigated by Marcus Licinius Crassus in the 1st Century BC. Whilst Crassus' fire brigade acted more as extortionists than genuine firefighters, the existence of a brigade will greatly enhance the security of the masses.
17 Gradated Citizenship Citizen Promotion Cost: -10% A series of 'levels', each denoting different rights and privileges, which can be attained by non-citizens in our nation, ensure that there is a ladder to climb, and that there is always something to work towards.
17 Opus Caementicium Build Time: -20% Roman concrete was a seminal invention, developed in the 3rd or 2nd Century BC. It quickly became widely used, and was found in villas, military buildings, roads, and many other constructions.
17 Mercenary Benefits Recruit Mercenary Cost: -25% Rewarding mercenaries for their service as if they were our own veterans will attract greater numbers of foreign volunteers willing to accept less pay.
18 Crucifixion National Slave Output: +10% Ubiquitous in antiquity, crucifixion was a punishment largely reserved for slaves, in Rome. Whilst crimes would have to be severe to incur such a death, witnessing this punishment must have had a severe psychological effect.
18 Trade Ports Capital Import Routes: +1 With large piers, ports and administration set aside for the merchants visiting our cities, we are sure to get a better handle on all trade being done inside the nation.
18 Urban Planning Building Slots: +1 By planning out our cities ahead of time, we can make sure to get the most out of any potential location.
19 Import Tax National Tax: +5% Many empires in antiquity imposed a tax on the import, and sometimes export, of goods. Whilst Rome felt they had little use for it, the Mauryan empire sometimes imposed taxes of up to 20% in imported goods.
19 Servile Bondage National Citizen Output: +5% The old right of free men to enter into a contract of servitude with the noble classes is controversial, but will surely improve the lot of the elite.
19 Limited Governship Governor Wage: -10% Displacing the authority of our governors is essential for reducing the likelihood of them becoming minor independent warlords trying to wrest control from our central leadership.
20 Mandated Record Keeping National Commerce Income: +15% In Rome, the keeping of records by the mercatores and argentii was a legal requirement. Being able to track the flow of revenue is a necessity for a functioning bureaucracy.
20 Triumviri Capitales National Freeman Output: +5% In Rome, the capitales were responsible for prisons, punishment, and peace. Instituting this office will greatly increase the level of order in our nation, which is bound to increase productivity.
20 Divinely Guided Loyalty Gain Chance: -50% It is a well known fact among our people that our nation has been guided by the divine itself, and our leadership must therefore be chosen as well. And what fool would oppose something like that?

Oratory Inventions

Tech Level Name Modifier Description
0 Proxenoi Improve Opinion Maximum: +20% A prelude to the later concept of permanent ambassadors, proxenoi were chosen by Greek city-states, to act as representatives in neighboring cities.
0 Aggressive Protection Fabricate Claim Cost: -10% Sometimes, the only excuse we need, is that we are the only ones who can truly offer security.
0 Humane Conduct Diplomatic Reputation: +1 The concept of battlefield honor has existed for millennia, nonetheless, we should set down a code for dealing with our opponents, that we ourselves might receive fair treatment in defeat.
1 Fetiales Aggressive Expansion Impact: -5% The Fetial priests were a group of ancient Latin priests, who performed unusual rites relating to the declaration of war.
1 Official Orators Monthly Tyranny: -0.01 Employing skilled speakers to proclaim our decrees, laws, and decisions, will lessen the chance of fomenting dissent in our populace.
1 Equal Integration Aggressive Expansion Change: -0.02 Establishing the rights of conquered peoples, is an important first step to integration, and will lessen the ire of those displeased by our conquest.
2 Centralized Comites Change Governor Policy Cost: -20% Standardizing the bureaucratic tools of our governors by providing them with competent assistants will improve the effectiveness of local government by cutting inefficiency.
2 Triumphal Coins Hold Triumph Cost: -10% The creation of high value currency, minted purely for prestige and honor, should be produced whenever we hold a major triumph. As such, our glory will be known for all time!
2 Legal Patronage Monthly Loyalty: +0.01 A system of legal sponsorship will establish a means of hierarchy within the echelons of our realm.
3 Census Data Oratory Tech Investment: +5% The practice of taking census, is said to have first appeared in Middle Kingdom Egypt. On a wider scale, however, it became vital to the continued administration of the Roman republic; providing valuable data about the ethnicity and details of dwellers therein.
3 National Seal Improve Opinion Maximum: +20% By awarding our seal to those who speak in our name, we avoid any questions of authenticity.
3 Coding Diplomatic Range: +15% By making use of a pre-decided number of codes for quick communication we can greatly alleviate the perils of long distance communication with our emissaries and spies in foreign courts.
4 Rerum Repetitio Aggressive Expansion Impact: -5% Performed by the Fetial priests, this rite involved the delivering of Rome's demands to an enemy state, accompanied by the ritual hurling of a blood-soaked javelin into enemy land, if the demands were not met.
4 Propraetors and Proconsuls Monthly Governor Loyalty: +0.02 Differing levels of imperium could be granted to Governors, ensuring that each knows his or her own place. This could often be used as a way to grant up-and-coming politicians a taste of what awaited them in the future.
4 Open Negotiations Diplomatic Reputation: +1 Holding diplomatic negotiations in the full display of the public will ensure that both parties are held to their word.
5 Hierarchy of Responsibility Monthly Tyranny: -0.01 We must ensure that there is always someone in place to take the blame if our decisions backfire.
5 Shady Connections Assassinate Cost: -10% Establishing connections with the shady guilds and colleges willing to do wetwork for the right price, is a sad but necessary state of affairs.
5 Tributary Administration Tribute Income: +10% It is time that we do away with the brief, ever-changing deals with our tributaries, and institute a formal written agreement, laying out both sides of the arrangement in a simple manner.
6 Casus Belli Warscore Cost: -10% Establishing a just cause for war is instrumental in negotiating favorable terms for our enemies' surrender.
6 Regular Senate Hours Endorse Party Cost: -20% Institution of formal senate hours, on a daily basis, gives us much more opportunity to sway dissenting voices to our way of thinking.
6 Formalized Dependencies Tributary Opinion of Us: +10% Formalizing a state of protection with the leadership of our subjects, similar to the system of Socii under the Romans, goes a long way to easing the minds of our vassals.
7 Defending Liberty Aggressive Expansion Impact: -5% No matter our true cause, proclaiming that those weaker than ourselves are incapable of defending themselves, and therefore in need of our benevolent guidance, we garner acclaim on the international stage.
7 Steganography Diplomatic Range: +15% The concealment of secret messages is an art that any country wishing to transfer diplomatic correspondence over any notable distances, must master. By employing inventive, if often simple, ways of hiding information we will be able to keep in contact with our distant ambassadors.
7 Mandate Local Governance Aggressive Expansion Change: -0.02 Once the ex-governments of our conquests are toppled, we should respect the local regional administration of foreign lands. They, after all, know their people better than we.
8 Permanent Ambassadors Improve Opinion Maximum: +20% By permanently employing those with silken tongues to speak on our behalf, we can soothe our neighbors far better than before.
8 Approved Familia Monthly Loyalty: +0.01 Recognizing certain families as important bloodlines related to the history of our nation, guarantees a certain amount of respectability amongst nobility.
8 Proportional Agreements Tribute Income: +10% Some of our less civilized tributaries cannot always produce currency to fulfill their end of our arrangements. We should be willing to accept goods in kind.
9 Seeded Acclamation Monthly Tyranny: -0.01 It may be an old trick, but seeding the crowd with paid supporters is a surefire way to stir up support in some of our less popular decisions.
9 Espionage Inspire Disloyalty Cost: -25% Forming a network of sympathetic minds in foreign nations, makes it a lot easier to effect change outside our borders.
9 Summitry Diplomatic Relations: +1 The act of holding regular summit meetings amongst similarly sized powers, provides a splendid opportunity for making new friends... or enemies.
10 Mercenary Reliance Mercenary Maintenance: -10% Letting it be known that we always fulfill a portion of our military endeavors by employing mercenaries, will keep offers competitive, amongst those vying for work.
10 Military Ambassadors Aggressive Expansion Impact: -5% Bestowing our diplomats with military rank will not only impress our foes, but make it quite clear that we hold the carrot, and the stick.
10 Gradual Economic Integration Aggressive Expansion Change: -0.02 Demanding full tax and tribute from conquered lands is only likely to cause civil unrest. Instead, we should ease them into a full tithe gradually.
11 War Propaganda Warscore Cost: -10% By disseminating sure knowledge that our cause is just, we are certain to have a stronger bargaining position when it comes to demanding terms.
11 Town Criers Smear Reputation Cost: -10% Employing skilled orators on our behalf will allow us to anonymously spread the truth about those wicked enough to act against our interests.
11 Administrative Patronage Monthly Loyalty: +0.01 Encouraging our governors to develop personal ties of patronage with subjects, increases both the loyalty of their subjects, and reinforces the system altogether.
12 Provincial Census Oratory Tech Investment: +5% Extending the census to include far-flung reaches of our realm, foreigners, and all who claim residence within our borders, greatly increases our demographic knowledge and our ability to plan upon it.
12 Diplomatic Immunity Diplomatic Reputation: +1 The distance between seats of government means that the safety of ambassadors must be sacrosanct - we must all speak on the same terms.
12 Shift Cipher Diplomatic Range: +15% Adapting basic cryptographic routines for our diplomats and messengers will allow us to transfer information more safely over great distances.
13 Divine Mandate Aggressive Expansion Impact: -5% Ensuring that our neighbors know the we believe in our divine right to conquer, they should hardly be surprised when we do...
13 Hereditary Ambassadorship Improve Opinion Maximum: +20% Appointing new ambassadors every time one of them dies, takes up unnecessary and precious time. We should encourage them to take their family with them, and confer ambassadorship to their sons, in the event of an accident.
13 Yearly Installments Tribute Income: +10% The old days of yearly treasure chests are behind us. To maintain an accurate balance sheet, we must encourage our tributaries to offer us a regular stipend.
14 Adventus Monthly Tyranny: -0.01 Whenever our glorious leader travels to another city, we must proclaim their entry with trumpets, triumph, and celebration. Thus, shall all know the majesty of our nation.
14 Transferred Citizenship Tributary Opinion of Us: +10 By allowing the citizens of our subjects to apply for citizenship in our own nation, we might ease the tensions between ourselves and our subjects. After all, we can always refuse them...
14 Grand Triumph Monthly General Loyalty: +0.02 Our generals loyalty will be secured when they fight safe with the knowledge a triumph awaits their victories, and a chance to be written down in our annals and remembered as one of the great protectors of our nation.
15 Selective Immunity Bribe Character Cost: -10% Clearly, any laws requiring the indictment of our ruling classes, make ruling very difficult indeed. They should be amended with this new principle in mind.
15 Oaths of Fealty Aggressive Expansion Change: -0.02 It may seem like a small gesture, but insisting that conquered administrations swear their undying loyalty to us, legitimizes our conquests in the eyes of our peers.
15 Extended Diplomacy Control range modifier: +15% It is essential for our nation to get to know our adversaries, no matter how far away they might be.
16 Symbolic Victory Warscore Cost: -10% Forcing our defeated opponents' leaders to kneel before us and pay homage, establishes our supremacy. After this, none would dare ask for more favorable terms.
16 Noble Envoys Diplomatic Reputation: +1 Our subjects, enemies, and allies, will feel much more honored if we send our finest and most upstanding members of society to speak in our place.
16 Local Embassies Loyalty of Subject States: +10 By setting up diplomatic envoys that will work from our subjects' own lands, they are sure to feel like we are closer than we have ever been before.
17 Lawful Treaties Improve Opinion Maximum: +20% Ensuring that both parties to a diplomatic agreement have full recognizance of the contents, is vital to ensuring fair deals between nations.
17 Patrocinium Monthly Loyalty: +0.02 The protection offered by the system of patronage establishes legal and financial security. We should encourage this behavior amongst our more benevolent elite.
17 Tributary Legates Tribute Income: +10% Some of our more far-flung tributary states are less inclined to offer us a full quota of tribute. By creating a new office of ambassador, entirely devoted to reminding these uncultured sorts of our potential for retribution, we might better encourage them to fulfill their end of the bargain.
18 Command Incentives Recruit General Cost: -25% It is not enough to expect our generals to fight for the glory of our nation. We must ensure that they have a right to spoils, property, and responsibilities in the lands they conquer.
18 Polybius Square Diplomatic Range: +15% Polybius Square is an elegant solution to the need for allowing easier encryption and deciphering of information in the field. Safe transfer of secret information is vital for conducting long range diplomacy.
18 Foreign Network Diplomatic Relations: +1 By building a massive network of contacts among our friends, allies and enemies, we are sure to get a better understanding of one another.
19 Chironomia Monthly Tyranny: -0.02 The traditional hand signals employed by those skilled in rhetoric, give our words a weight and believability which they previously lacked.
19 Career Negotiators Diplomatic Reputation: +2 When writing treaties, we ought to send our most qualified negotiators. It is quite possible to slip in a few extra clauses if enough legal jargon is included...
19 Diplomatic Apologetics Aggressive Expansion Change: -0.02 Keeping our ambassadors and diplomats in the loop, ensures that they can smooth things over after we draw the ire of our peers.
20 Military Patronage Monthly Loyalty: +0.03 The relationship between generals, soldiers, and veterans should be extended to include an official system of patronage. This will broaden our hierarchical society even further.
20 Allied Representatives Tributary Opinion of Us: +25 Granting our major subjects a seat upon our council, we allow them to better represent their own opinions. Whether or not they are listened to.
20 Satellite Status Tribute Income: +25% Formally recognizing the autonomy of our tributary states is a small price to pay for their continued donations to our cause.

Religious Inventions

Tech Level Name Modifier Description
0 Hierarchical Haruspication Omen Power: +5% Sacrifices are a standard way in which we may offer our wishes and prayers to the divine. A written code detailing the acceptability of varying sacrificial creatures, will assist our priests and people.
0 Oath of Brotherhood Army Morale Recovery: +2% Formalizing a soldier's commitment to fight for his or her comrades, was an act which solidified the bond of brotherhood that only military service could bring. A Ius Iurandum, in Rome, the 'Oath of Oaths', was sworn by new soldiers, in which they pledged their lives to each other.
0 Herbalism Technology Speed: +5% Knowledge of the plants and herbs which surround us, can have uses beyond that which many would suspect. From birth control to medicine, we cannot underestimate botany.
1 F.U.G. Primary Culture Happiness: +2.5% In Rome, slaves which had escaped and been caught, were branded with the letters FUG, for fugitivus; leaving a lasting impression on themselves, and all who viewed them, as to the dangers of rebellion.
1 Grand Temples Omen Duration: +10% Expanding our religious sites to include great structures, enhances the stature of the priestly class within our realm.
1 Grain Rations National Popualtion Growth: +0.05% Handing out portions of free grain to those who require it, keeps the wheels of our civilization turning.
2 Due Process Ruler Popularity Gain: +0.05 Ensuring that everyone has recourse to appeal against actions or indictments, protects both the people, and gives our government an air of fairness.
2 Contractual Obligation Sacrifice to the Gods Cost: -5% Religion in many ancient cultures involved a particularly personal and contractual obeisance. The large number of aspects or gods gave each individual the ability to choose how to pray, and to customize the manner in which they did so.
2 Accepted Rites Wrong Culture-Group Happiness: +5% Compiling a list of accepted religious rites, as often practiced by foreigners within our realm, will grant a certain degree of security to our foreign populace.
3 Marine Auxilia Navy Morale Recovery: +2% Choosing to serve as crewman or marine was the only choice that potential crew-members would receive. There primarily to defend against boarding, or to capture enemy ships in boarding actions, the presence of a marine detachment was a widespread tradition amongst state navies.
3 Tannery Districts National Tribesman Happiness: +5% The hideous odors produced by tanning leather could create severely unpalatable living conditions. As the size of urban centers grew, it became quickly apparent that measures had to be taken.
3 Alumen Technology Speed: +5% Alum was a source of potassium, which was used for a variety of uses, including medicinal preparation, cosmetics, and food flavoring.
4 Soothsayers Army Morale Recovery: +2% The practice of integrating priestly classes into the military was commonplace. Acting as conduits for the divine approval of whatever military action an army was engaged in, boosted morale considerably.
4 Open Religion Primary Culture Happiness: +2.5% Many religious cults would enshrine a constitution of equality, remaining open to all comers, regardless of class.
4 Private Cults Omen Duration: +10% Allowing the creation of private religious cults may limit our involvement, but will greatly increase the zeal of our people.
5 Legendary Foundation Omen Power: +5% The Mahabharata, the Aeneid, and Homer's great works, played heavily on the intertwined relationship between gods and men. The commissioning of such tracts became popular, as a tool to inspire a sense of cultural pride amongst a populace.
5 Recording Tradition Religious Tech Investment: +5% The often unpaid domestic priests of the Republic, had a rich oral tradition, passing down legends, history, and errata. By encouraging the transfer of this knowledge to a more solid medium, we may preserve our tradition for all eternity.
5 Auxiliary Recruitment National Manpower: +5% Relying on foreign vagrants to make up the menial portion of our fighting forces, lets our valuable citizens focus on more important tasks.
6 Expanded Naval Hierarchy Navy Morale Recovery: +2% Instituting a formalized hierarchy on board our vessels is vital in keeping order amidst the chaos of combat.
6 Sponsored Games Ruler Popularity Gain: +0.05 Sanctioning state funded athletic events was a standard way of building up a political power base, and pleasing the people at the same time.
6 Bread Stamp National Population Growth: +0.05% Bread stamps were used as a means of identifying which bakery produced any given loaf. This allowed for identification of quality, and management of food-spread diseases.
7 Tolerated Cults Sacrifice to the Gods Cost: -5% Present in numerous cultures and nations, the mystery religions were a syncretic ideology which often ran alongside the state religion, and involved secret rite, societies and meetings. In India, Jainism developed as a minor religious movement which eventually state sanction under the Mauryas, with Chandragupta himself embracing a Jain lifestyle upon retirement.
7 Mass Pewter Production Technology Speed: +5% Pewter is a soft metal alloy, which found widespread use as a durable material with which to craft everyday objects.
7 Disciplined Civilians Monthly War Exhaustion: -0.02 Though times of war can lead to hard times for our civilians, they will understand that we need to defend and expand our borders for the betterment of everyone.
8 Regimental Standards Army Morale Recovery: +2% Our military operates in distinct groupings of units. By associating each with a symbol or standard, every soldier has a familiar icon with which to develop a sense of unit pride.
8 Hand Abacus National Freeman Happiness: +5% Used by merchants and inventors alike, the abacus provided a means of quickly tallying costs and expenditures, making domestic trading a much more palatable affair.
8 Double Pay National Manpower: +5% Instituting a formal hierarchy of careers within our army, gives every common soldier a goal to aspire to, rendering a life in the army a more attractive prospect.
9 Expanded Religious Holidays Omen Power: +5% '
9 Minor Syncretism Wrong Culture-Group Happiness: +5% Rome was famous for the sheer quantity of obscure religious festivals it possessed. State observed holidays were a sure way of pleasing the common folk and nobility, alike.
9 Reduced Governship Provincial Loyalty: +0.05 With some control of the provinces centralized our locals are sure to grow more loyal to the nation as a whole.
10 Fleet Hierarchy Navy Morale Recovery: +2% In addition to the complex ship-based hierarchy of officers, the establishment of a command structure for our navies will ensure that responsibility always lies in the correct places.
10 Obstetrics National Population Growth: +0.05% The early development of women's medicine could be dangerous and risky. Nonetheless, it would prove invaluable in the saving of many children's lives.
10 Ban Witchcraft Omen Duration: +10% Heathen incantations and magical spells, imported by practitioners of foreign religions, are a stain on our cultural heritage. Banning these is paramount to our continued prosperity.
11 Collegiality Ruler Popularity Gain: +0.05 Nominally appointing shadow, backup, or ostensibly equal positions in government, allows us to share responsibility and oversight of matters administrative.
11 Stoicism National Unrest: -1 The spread of stoicism as a philosophical movement, espoused belief in a universal spirit in which all men were held equal.
11 Shorthand Writing Technology Speed: +5% Known as stenography, the practice of summarizing texts which would otherwise take up a great deal of time and space, originated in Greece. It spread quickly, as a means of taking down important speeches or ideas at a rapid pace.
12 State Burials Sacrifice to the Gods Cost: -5% Those too poor to afford a burial for their family members should be granted the convenience of a state-sponsored burial service.
12 Glass Blowing National Citizen Happiness: +5% An innovative technique used to shape glass, glass blowing revolutionized the creation of expensive amenities.
12 Reinterpreted Prodigies Call Omen Cost: -10% In Rome, terrible omens and calamitous portents had to be ratified by the senate. In some cases, the senate could reconvene on the matter of whether a portent was, in fact, such a bad thing after all.
13 Military Decorations Army Morale Recovery: +2% Instituting a series of decorations for valorous conduct in battle, was a valuable tool for keeping order, and giving soldiers something to fight for. The Hasta Pura, or 'Silver Spear' was initially awarded to Roman soldiers on the occasion of their first kill.
13 Punishment Roster Navy Morale Recovery: +2% By publishing a detailed list of offenses, we can ensure that crews and officers alike, understand the obedience expected of them at sea.
13 Medical Auxilia National Manpower: +5% The health of our soldiers is of paramount importance. Adequate health care will get soldiers back on the field, faster.
14 Public Works Department Ruler Popularity Gain: +0.05 The oversight of public works is a matter requiring a great deal of bureaucratic diligence. Furthermore, by instituting this office, we can more readily support our ruler's choices to promote public approval.
14 Encouragement of Migration National Population Growth: +0.05% In cities where population fluctuates, the encouragement of migration from within and without our empire, can sustain populations.
14 Household Gods Omen Duration: +10% We ought to encourage every landowner to dedicate their property to a household god.
15 Proscribed Canon Omen Power: +5% While tolerance is key to integration, certain religious practices observed by foreign religions are simply too alien for our people to conceive. Banning barbaric rites such as these is vital to safeguard our people's spiritual welfare.
15 Exported Drama Primary Culture Happiness: +2.5% The ancient tragedies and comedies of the Greeks, renowned worldwide, have provided amusement for the masses for centuries. It would be a shame to limit them only to Greece.
15 Zero Technology Speed: +5% The concept of 'zero', did not exist in the standard Roman numeral system. The existence of such a concept was vital to the Greek mathematicians in performing advanced calculations.
16 Constitution Ruler Popularity Gain: +0.05 Any state will benefit from a constitution, replete with protection for the downtrodden, and oaths of obedience to the state and ruler.
16 Household Priests Sacrifice to the Gods Cost: -5% Wealthy families would often employ a minor religious figure to lead worship, and safeguard the spiritual welfare of the household. In Rome, the paterfamilias, or head of the family, became a legal position of responsibility over matters of faith and obeisance.
16 Scribae Religious Tech Investment: +5% Scribae would accompany magistrates of all manner, assisting in record-keeping and official business. They were also known to assist in religious rites, often being responsible for the preservation of prayers, sacraments, and oaths.
17 Bow Ornamentation Navy Morale Recovery: +2% The sight of a proud deity affixed or painted on the bow of our vessels will bolster pride and morale within our navies. Additionally, the sight of a fearsome god bearing down upon them, must surely break the resolve of our foes.
17 Major Syncretism Wrong Culture-Group Happiness: +5% Whereas once all our people worshiped together, our nation is now populated by people of various faiths, beliefs, and practices. It is time that we looked seriously at adopting various aspects of major foreign religions, and create a system whereby all may be served by our faith.
17 Guilt by Association Monthly Corruption: -0.02 An elaborate system of minor bribery laws, the concept of guilt by association put an end to many corrupt practices in Roman politics, and abroad.
18 Severe Strictures Army Morale Recovery: +2% Decimation, and other, similar practices, were used as last-resort punishments against units that had engaged in mutiny or cowardice. Decimation would involve the random selection of one tenth of a unit, who would then be executed by their former comrades. The ever-present threat of such a terrible punishment ensured that acts of cowardice were rare indeed.
18 Libertini National Slave Happiness: +5% Our freed slaves will graduate to a distinct class; giving them something to aspire to, and keeping them in line.
18 Religious Board National Manpower: +5% Insititute a formal board of religious persons, dedicated to deciding which deities, foreign or otherwise, were acceptable to be worshiped by soldiers. Not only does this give us control over our troops' religious observance, but encourages those of minority faiths, to serve us.
19 Water Mill National Population Growth: +0.05% The invention of water-wheels revolutionized production of flour and bread, allowing for bulk production of food for the masses.
19 Assemblies Primary Culture Happiness: +2.5% Granting rights to minority groups, to hold their own assemblies, will grant them a sense of self-determinism, which will keep them in line.
19 War Dedication Omen Duration: +20% Dedicating our troops to a specific deity or aspect for any given war, will let us conquer under one ideology.
20 Formulaic Worship Sacrifice to the Gods Cost: -5% Ensuring that every major religious festival is sanctioned, properly observed, and well put-together, goes some way towards safeguarding the stability of our nation.
20 Translated Symbology Omen Power: +10% The use of widely acknowledged religious symbols when depicting leaders, generals and public figures, promotes their superiority. The Radiate Crown was often associated with Alexander, in contemporary art, and the practice caught on with his successors in particular.
20 Service for Life National Manpower: +10% The wounded, maimed, and otherwise unfit, may still be useful as reserves and border guards. Thus can we ensure that the best soldiers are always serving on the front line.