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A state is any political structure comprising a community of people organized under some form of government; it is also called a country.

In Imperator: Rome, a state owns at least one territory, one pop and some characters, except for Migrant Hordes; it can be sovereign (i.e, independent) or a subject (tributary, feudatory, tribal vassal, satrapy or client state). The player plays as a state, and controls the characters who compose the elite class. Please consult list of all countries in Imperator: Rome for an overview to choose from.


Main article: Culture#State culture

Each nation also has a set heritage, offering two bonuses and one malus. This cannot be changed, even when forming a new nation, and its modifiers stay with you for the whole game.


Main article: Religion#State_religion

Every country starts with a predefined state religion, which can be viewed just above the pantheon deities in the Menu religion.png Religion tab. Every religion has bonuses that are applied to the entire country, and also determines the base deities that are always available regardless of the population or holy sites of the country. State religion also has a small effect on diplomacy—countries of the same religion get a Opinion improvement active.png +10 opinion bonus with each other. There is no malus for having a different state religion.

There is no default happiness bonus or penalty for pop religion, but pops will receive a Pop happy.png +4% happiness bonus for each deity in the state pantheon that matches their religion, making it useful for polytheistic states to take on pantheon gods of religions that are widespread inside their country - though spreading out the deity happiness bonus between deities of different religions means a smaller happiness modifier for each individual religion. The happiness of state religion pops specifically is also be increased with the State religion happiness state religion happiness modifier, which is given by various omens and deities, inventions, laws, heritages, and more.

Additionally, the percentage of pops following the state religion determines the nation's Religious power.png Religious Unity value, which is the main component of Omen.png omen power.

State Conversion

Main article: Decisions#Religious Conversion decisions

The state religion can be changed by decision if there is at least 1 character of the new religion in the country, and either 50% of the non-slave pops in the Country capital.png capital, or at least 20% of all the pops of the country and at least one Change pantheon cost modifier.png pantheon deity, follow the new religion the country intends to convert to. Switching religions can only be done once every 10 years and costs Political influence.png 200 political influence and Stability.png 30 stability, also giving a temporary drop of Loyalty.png −15 Loyalty for all characters that are followers of the old faith.


Main article: Government

Government The other main defining feature of a state is its government type, which can be classified into one of three more general government forms - Republic, Monarchy or Tribal.

Different government types have different modifiers, bonuses, and National Idea slots, and it can be useful to switch to one that better synergizes with the current strategy and playstyle. Changing between government types is generally done by Top bar decisions.png decision and the requirements can generally be seen at any time. These requirements may include a minimum Stability.png stability level, certain Political influence.png laws (or not having certain laws), a minimum Civilization.png civilization value in the capital territory, a specific Top bar technology.png technology level, and more, and will almost always cost stability. Certain Top bar missions.png mission trees, such as the Flag of Carthage Carthaginian mission tree Aegis of Africa, may also allow for changing government type even when if the country does not meet the normal requirements.

The government form defines the method of succession, the available laws, and the makeup of the offices, which give political power and various bonuses according to the character's attributes and Loyalty. Each government form also has different mechanics that a player must deal with - Republics must seek the approval of the Senate for nearly every major action, Monarchies must watch their Legitimacy and deal with angry Pretenders, and Tribes must appease their Clan Chiefs and decide on the direction of Centralization. Government offices also provide political influence depending upon the holder's Loyalty. Changing the government form is usually harder than changing government type; reforming from a Tribal government to a Republic or Monarchy involves going through the Tribal Reform mission tree, changing from a Republic to a Monarchy requires high Tyranny and the declaration of a Dictatorship, and changing from a Monarchy to a Republic is not generally possible outside of a few special events or missions (such as the Flag of Syracusae Syracusan mission tree Death to Tyrants).


Main article: Ruler

Each state is headed by a Leader.png ruler, prominently visible on the Show Government tab of the Government government panel, and their traits, attributes, and relationships have a significant effect on Loyalty.png character loyalty, Senate influence.png Senate support, and state modifiers from Commerce modifier.png national commerce income to Land morale recovery.png army morale recovery to Stability monthly change.png monthly stability change. Rulers with high attributes can be a considerable boon to their country, significantly strengthening the state and allowing the nation to punch well above its weight, while corrupt, low attribute rulers can inflict major penalties that a state must struggle through. A ruler may be supported by a co-ruler or consort, who contribute any of their four main attributes if they are higher than those of the ruler, but may also have effects on Political influence.png political influence generation and modifier for ruler Popularity.png popularity and Corruption.png corruption. Succession varies widely depending on the country's government form, ranging between dynastic inheritance in a monarchy, Senatorial election in republics, and rotation between Clan Chiefs in tribes, and the length of office may vary widely as well.

Accumulated points


Main article: Economy

Cost The nation's Treasury stores all of its currently accumulated wealth. The nation's income is calculated monthly and comes from tax collection, domestic commerce, trade route income, and subject tributes. Many events can also give gold into the treasury, often scaled by the nation's current income.

Monthly expenses include army and fleet maintenance, tributes to an overlord, fort maintenance and character wages. Wealth is also spent on building costs, founding of cities/metropolises, invention acquisition, some character interactions, slave resettlement between territories, and many more. If a state runs into deficit, a random event may grant some gold in exchange for a temporary drawback.


Manpower.png Manpower represents a pool of ready-to-fight people who are drawn from Freeman freeman and Tribesman tribesman pops inhabiting a state. Manpower is used when recruiting new army cohorts and replenishing attrition or combat losses; if manpower becomes low, a nation can become very vulnerable to attack.

Manpower is directly increased by several trade goods bonuses (e.g., horses and iron) and Barracks/Training Camp buildings, as well as it is modified by Freeman freeman / Tribesman tribesman happiness and output.

Political Influence

Main article: Political influence

Political influence.png Political Influence represents the state's political capital and is used to perform actions directly relating to the government, such as selecting national ideas or implementing laws.

It is an abstract currency generated by loyal members of your government over time, who are chosen as office holders. The total value accrued each month is determined by each character's Loyalty, therefore, it may fluctuate consistently over the year. Each government office provides up to +0.25 per month, if the holder's Loyalty is at 100.

Military Experience

Military experience.png Military Experience is a countrywide value that measures the degree of Military Experience the state has built up. This currency is used to acquire Military Traditions.

Military Experience increases by +0.30 per month, modified by current average cohort experience and war exhaustion, where reliance on mercenaries reduces the speed it accumulates by. The player can activate the "Drill ability" on an army, which will build up cohort experience in exchange for increased maintenance cost and Loyalty gain chance.


Main article: Technology#Research_Points

Research points.png Research Points represent the progression of techniques and discoveries during the time period. They are produced by Citizen citizen pops inhabiting a state, and it is recommended that at least 1/3 of a state's population is made up of Citizen citizens in order to achieve 100% research efficiency. The player can track research production on the Technology technology panel.

They are automatically spent towards advancing the four fields of technology: martial, civil, oratory and religious. Each new advance in a field grants several bonuses and unlock three new random inventions which are acquired with gold.

Research points are increased by the Academy city building, and trade goods bonuses (cloth, earthenware, glass and papyrus). They are modified by characters employed as researchers, and Citizen citizen happiness and output.


Stability.png Stability represents the trust that the characters and population of your country has in your government, and its general ability to withstand threats and discontent from within. Stability runs from 0 to 100, with a base value of 50 that the stability value will naturally decay to. Positive (above 50) has many economic benefits, increasing population growth, commerce income, research points, and legitimacy. Negative stability (below 50) will increase unrest, decrease primary culture happiness and legitimacy (in monarchies), and lower the thresholds for triggering civil wars and rebellions, making it more likely that a revolt will break out if stability is not quickly raised.

Stability is decreased by certain diplomatic or political actions, such as breaking truces, changing laws, or swapping pantheon deities. It is also spent by migratory tribes to start migrations. The primary method of increasing stability is to spending Political influence.png on the Sacrifice to the Gods action in the Religion view, which will increase the monthly stability change. Certain omens, traits and laws also increase monthly stability change. Many Queued Events also offer immediate stability boosts, usually at the cost of spending or forgoing a bonus in some other currency (especially wealth and political power).

Your nation is considered disorganized if stability is below 30, which will prevent you from assigning characters to offices or declaring wars.

Generally speaking higher stability is always better, though because decay increases as stability gets further away from 50, it is usually not worth it to intentionally try to keep stability very high. Low stability should always be a cause for concern unless your nation is very well managed, as prolonged instability will eventually lead to revolts and rebellions.

  • Effects of stability
    • positive stability >50. Values multiplied with stability-50
      • research points +0.5%
      • global commerce +0.5%
      • monthly legitimacy +0.3%
      • civil war threshold +0.3%
      • rebellion threshold +0.1%
      • global population growth +0.01%
    • negative stability <50. Values multiplied with 50-stability
      • global unrest +0.04 (-1% EXTRA revolt risk each step)
      • monthly legitimacy -0.01%
      • primary culture happiness -0.8%
      • loyalty gain chance +0.3%
      • populist faction influence = +0.06
      • threshold for civil war -0.02%
      • rebellion threshold -0.1%
      • monthly stability decay -0.01% (reduced stability decay)

Aggressive Expansion

Aggressive expansion.png Aggressive Expansion (AE) represents the resentment that other states and pops in your empire have against conquests and other aggressive actions you take. The primary effect of Aggressive Expansion is to decrease the happiness of non-state culture population and lower the loyalty of all subject States, significantly increasing unrest at higher levels and raising the risk of a rebellion. Higher Aggressive Expansion also significantly decreases the opinion of nearby states (though allies have a much reduced opinion malus) and makes it more likely that the nation is viewed as a threat, making it more difficult to conduct diplomacy and encouraging other states to form alliances or defensive leagues against the expanding country. Very high Aggressive Expansion will have an impact on even primary culture pops and reduces political influence generation. Aggressive Expansion has a base value of 0, where it has no effects, and can become arbitrarily high, but cannot become negative.

Each point of Aggressive Expansion has the following modifiers:

Each point of Aggressive Expansion beyond 50 also has the following effects, in addition to the ones above:

  • Political influence.png -0.10% Monthly Political Influence
  • Happiness for same culture modifier.png -0.50% Primary Culture Happiness
  • Agressive expansion impact.png -2.00% Aggressive Expansion Impact

Aggressive Expansion is primarily accrued through conquering new territories or forcing vassalization during a war. Several diplomatic actions, character interactions, and unit abilities also increase Aggressive Expansion.

Aggressive expansion.png gain Type
  • War.png per Territory annexed in War, adjusted by Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact
  • Holy Site.png Removing a treasure from an owned Holy Site
  • Casus belli.png Insult Diplomatic Action
  • War.png per Territory vassalized in War, adjusted by Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact
  • War.png per Territory annexed by subject in War, adjusted by Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact of the overlord

The base Agressive expansion monthly decay.png Aggressive Expansion Decay is -0.20% of current Aggressive Expansion per month, which can be increased by another -0.20% with the Stance appeasement.png Appeasing Diplomatic Stance and another -0.20% if your ruler has the Righteous Righteous trait; however, this decay is active only if your country is not currently on the side of the aggressor in a war. There are also several sources of flat monthlyAgressive expansion monthly change.png Aggressive Expansion Change that is active at all times, including Oratory inventions, government offices, and various deities. All static sources of monthly Aggressive Expansion Change are listed below:

Agressive expansion monthly change.png Type
  • State religion.png Above deities if Holy Site.png holy site is owned
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for above omens if Holy Site.png holy site is owned

Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact modifies how much aggressive expansion is accrued from conquering land and vassalizing other states after a war, primarily decreasing the AE cost of conquest. Sources of Aggressive Expansion Impact include Oratory inventions, Laws, ruler traits, heritages, mission/event modifiers, and high aggressive expansion; the last in particular means that at some point above 50 you will accrue very little additional Aggressive Expansion for any further conquests, effectively providing a soft cap to the modifier. The effects of Aggressive Expansion Impact are capped at -95.00%, corresponding to an absolute minimum of 0.05 aggressive expansion per territory annexed or vassalized. Static sources of Aggressive Expansion Impact are listed below:

Agressive expansion impact.png Type
  • Maurya.png Heritage of Chandragupta (Maurya)
-2.00% Aggressive expansion.png per point of Aggressive Expansion above 50
  • State religion.png Above deities if Holy Site.png holy site is owned
  • Casus belli.png Has claim on territory (note: applies when vassalizing as well)

The impact of Aggressive Expansion is felt most in the early game, when diplomacy is most important and the lack of Aggression Expansion Impact means that taking even a few provinces can rack up a large amount of Aggressive Expansion. Governor armies may be necessary to suppress unrest in wrong culture group provinces in order to handle province loyalty and allow for conversion and assimilation to happen, while judicious use of Improving Relations can help prevent the diplomatic situation from getting out of hand. An expansionist empire should focus on sources of Aggressive Expansion Change and Impact, as well as Happiness for wrong culture group modifier.png Wrong Culture Group Happiness bonuses as this is where the bulk of the effects are felt. In the later game, when the player has built up a large empire that can easily stand against its neighbours, developed a large enough base of primary culture provinces that will be largely unaffected by Aggressive Expansion-driven unhappiness, accumulated many of the AE Change and Impact modifiers, and either accrued enough wrong culture group happiness modifiers or have sufficient garrison army capacity to handle different culture group provinces even at relatively high AE values, an empire can take advantage of the Aggressive Expansion Impact for having higher than 50 AE to be able to conquer large amounts of territory at little to no additional aggressive expansion penalty.


Tyranny Tyranny represents the level of oppression in your country and produces resentment against the government by characters and primary culture pops, but also increases the willingness of pops and factions to accede to your demands and the centralization of power. The level of Tyranny must be carefully managed, particularly in the early game, in order to avoid large reductions in character loyalty that can ensue in civil war as well as ensuring the productivity of your primary culture population, but in the later game when inventions and growth in power make characters and pops easier to deal with the increased Senate support for actions and war score cost bonus can become quite useful. The base Tyranny values range from the base value of 0, where it has no effects, to 100, and cannot be negative.

Each point of Tyranny gives the following modifiers:

  • Happiness for same culture modifier.png -0.50% Primary Culture Happiness
  • Warscore cost.png -0.50% War score Cost
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.50% Pop Assimilation Speed
  • Monthly office loyalty.png -0.25 Loyalty of Generals
  • Monthly office loyalty.png -0.25 Loyalty of Admirals
  • Monthly office loyalty.png -0.25 Loyalty of Governors
  • Pop slaves output.png +0.50% National Slave Output
  • Bribe character cost.png -1.00% Imprison Cost
  • Bribe character cost.png -1.00% Execute Cost

In Republics, each point of Tyranny also increases Senatorial Faction support for actions according to the following table:

Action Type Party civic.png Civic / Party military.png Military / Party mercantile.png Mercantile / Party religious.png Religious Faction Support Party populist.png Populist Faction Support
Population.png Character Interactions +1.00% +1.00%
Political influence.png Law Changes +0.50% +1.00%
Stance neutral.png Diplomatic Actions +1.00% +2.00%

Tyranny is primarily increased by various character actions, such as imprisoning, executing, and imposing sanctions on various characters, as well as overriding the will of the Senate in Republics when doing character interactions, changing laws, or conducting diplomacy. There are also many events, particularly those relating to characters and their interactions, that can raise or lower the country's tyranny level. The actions and interactions that cost or change the national Tyranny value are listed below by their base cost, which can be changed by various interaction-specific modifiers:

Tyranny gain Type

Tyranny is primarily lost through Monthly tyranny.png Monthly Tyranny change, which has a base reduction of -0.2 Tyranny per month. This can be increased and changed by many different modifiers, such as certain Oratory inventions, various deity and omen bonuses, ruler attributes and traits, and more, static sources of which are listed below:

Monthly tyranny.png Type
  • State religion.png Above deities if Holy Site.png holy site is owned
  • Idea divine mandate.png Divine Mandate National Idea
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Kopala Omen (Armazic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Spirits of Inspiration Omen (Bon deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Ba'al Qarnaim Omen (Canaanite deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Lenus Omen (Druidic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Diktean Zeus Omen (Hellenic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Nortia Omen (Hellenic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Wisdom of Bhadrabahu Omen (Jain deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Caleb and Joshua Omen (Jewish deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Tir Omen (Khaldic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Deivas Omen (Matrist deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Derzelas Omen (Zalmoxian deity)

In Republics, the Senatorial faction support from even relatively low amounts of Tyranny can be quite useful, making it worthwhile to have some level of Tyranny even in the early game when its effects are hardest to counteract. While monarchies have somewhat less use of Tyranny in the early game where expansion is more likely to be limited by Aggressive Expansion, Tyranny is generally not particularly problematic at lower levels and it is not very important to keep it low unless the nation is already experiencing issues with loyalty. It is worth noting that since Tyranny decay does not scale according to its current value and there are no easy ways to quickly lower it, high Tyranny can be problematic if the state is not prepared, especially if the ruler has low Oratory power.png Charisma.

The main economic impact of Tyranny tends to be in research, since research is produced exclusively by citizens who will get the Happiness for same culture modifier.png Primary Culture Happiness malus with higher tyranny without the compensating factor that the Pop slaves output.png National Slave Output bonus gives for tax income. Therefore in games where research is a particular focus should be wary of high tyranny or otherwise ensure that there are enough other sources of primary culture citizen happiness to counteract the malus. However, generally the most important impact of Tyranny is in character Loyalty, and so prudent character management and/or aiming for character loyalty bonuses are important for dealing with high Tyranny.

In the later game, when the player has accumulated enough loyalty and happiness bonuses to handle the penalties, high Tyranny is much more useful and players can take full advantage of its bonuses, particularly the Warscore cost.png warscore cost reduction. In conjunction with reductions from other sources and growing Aggressive Expansion Impact bonuses, a player with high Tyranny can conquer a vast amount of territory in the lategame as opposed to what is feasible early on. The Pop assimilation.png Pop Assimilation Speed and Pop slaves output.png National Slave Output can also be very useful once the happiness and unrest problems can be properly dealt with, making for a powerful tyrannical empire.

War Exhaustion

War exhaustion.png War exhaustion represents anger and discontent in the general population from casualties, blockades, and enemy occupation during a war. The effects of war exhaustion can be quite severe, significantly decreasing happiness of all pops and impacting ruler popularity, but also increasing Military Experience gain. High War Exhaustion will increase the AI's willingness to sign a more favourable peace, and conversely may force a player to sign a less favourable peace treaty rather than let their nation be consumed by unrest. War Exhaustion ticks down slowly based on the ruler's current Religious power.png zeal, which can be increased through various omens, laws, and ideas. If War Exhaustion becomes too high, the Invoke devotio.png Invoke Devotio action in the religion panel can be taken to increase War Exhaustion decay at the cost of Tyranny Tyranny.

State rank

Diplomacy This a measure of how large a state is, according to land expansion. Ranks are based on the number of currently incorporated territories, each state is qualified under one of the six following tiers.

All states can join alliances with other countries of same level, except for Great Powers.

Migrant Horde Migrant Horde

  • Territory range: 0
  • National manpower: +1000
  • Army weight modifier: -25%
  • Number of Clan Chiefs: +1 (if Tribal)

City State City State

Local Power Local Power

Regional Power Regional Power

Major Power Major Power

Great Power Great Power

Must not be a subject of another state.

Maximum civilization value

Main article: Civilization value

Every country has a base Civilization.png country civilization level, visible on the Overview Overview panel, that determines the baseline maximum possible civilization level of every territory that the country owns. This value can be increased by a number of different modifiers, such as country's government type, positive Centralization.png centralization for tribes (up to +10% at Centralization.png 100), Research points.png Oratory Advances (+2% per level), the national idea Idea state religion.png State Religion (+10%), the Gemstones gemstones capital surplus (+5%) and export +2.5% bonuses, and various other modifiers. Note that the country civilization level is only the baseline maximum civilization; individual province and territory modifiers such as Urban Development, Marble marble surpluses, and capital bonuses awarded when creating a formable nation can push the maximum civilization value of any individual territory even higher.