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A state is any political structure comprising a community of people organized under some form of government; it is also called country.

In Imperator: Rome, a state owns at least one territory, one pop and some characters, except for Migrant Hordes; it can be sovereign (i.e, independent) or a subject (tributary, feudatory, tribal vassal, satrapy or client state). The player plays as a state, and controls the characters who compose the elite class. Please consult list of all countries in Imperator: Rome for an overview to choose from.

State culture and religion

Each state begins the game with a predefined culture and religion. State religion can be changed afterwards through a decision, under the Decisions decisions button at the top bar.

Most often the culture and religion of populace living in the state is diverse, but they can be altered to match the state's during the playthrough via assimilation and conversion.

Each nation also has a set heritage, offering two bonuses and one malus. This cannot be changed.


Main article: Government

Government Each state also begins with a predefined bureaucratic structure. The government type (Aristocratic, Theocratic etc.) and even the government form (Democracy, Monarchy or Tribe) can be changed by fulfilling special requirements! It is also available under the decisions button at the top of the screen.

In order to change the current government, the player is required to pass certain laws, the capital territory may need a minimum civilization value, a specific technology level should be researched first and so forth.

The government form defines the available laws and provides special modifiers by each office, according to the character's attributes and Loyalty. Government offices also provide political influence depending upon the holder's Loyalty.


Main article: Character

Each state is managed by a ruler, who is one of the characters living within its borders. They are visible on the Government government panel.

A ruler may be supported by a co-ruler who contributes their highest attributes, if the ruler's abilities are lower. It is required the ruler (and co-ruler) has full citizenship and belongs to a national family.

The type of government establishes how the succession of power occurs, either by dynastic inheritance, Senate appointment or Clan Chief election.

Ruler / Co-Ruler
Attribute Bonuses
Military power.png Martial Increases Manpower recovery speed & increases army morale recovery
Oratory power.png Charisma Reduces Tyranny & increases claim fabrication speed
Civic power.png Finesse Increases national commerce income & reduces build cost
Religious power.png Zeal Increases monthly Stability growth & reduces war exhaustion

Accumulated points

Political Influence

Political Influence represents the state's political capital and is used to perform actions directly relating to the government, such as selecting national ideas or implementing laws.

It is an abstract currency generated by loyal members of your government over time, who are chosen as office holders. The total value accrued each month is determined by each character's Loyalty, therefore, it may fluctuate consistently over the year. Each government office provides up to +0.25 per month, if the holder's Loyalty is at 100.

Military Experience

It is a countrywide value that measures the degree of Military Experience the state has built up. This currency is used to acquire Military Traditions.

Military Experience increases by +0.30 per month, modified by current average cohort experience and war exhaustion, where reliance on mercenaries reduces the speed it accumulates by. The player can activate the "Drill ability" on an army, which will build up cohort experience in exchange for increased maintenance cost and Loyalty gain chance.


Main article: Economy

Cost Wealth - Basic monetary currency. Wealth income is provided by tax collection, domestic commerce, subject tributes, and export/import routes.

Expenses are comprised of army and fleet maintenance, fort maintenance, characters' wages, building costs, founding of cities/metropolises, invention acquisition, some character interactions, and slave resettlement between territories. If a state runs into deficit, a random event may grant some gold in exchange for a temporary drawback.


Manpower.png Manpower represents a pool of ready-to-fight people who are drawn from Freeman freeman and Tribesman tribesman pops inhabiting a state. It is required to recruiting new army cohorts and replenishing attrition or combat losses.

Manpower is directly increased by several trade goods bonuses (e.g., horses and iron) and Barracks/Training Camp buildings, as well as it is modified by Freeman freeman / Tribesman tribesman happiness and output.


Research points.png Research Points represent the progression of techniques and discoveries during the time period. They are produced by Citizen citizen pops inhabiting a state, and it is recommended that at least 1/3 of a state's population is made up of Citizen citizens in order to achieve 100% research efficiency. The player can track research production on the Technology technology panel.

They are automatically spent towards advancing the four fields of technology: martial, civil, oratory and religious. Each new advance in a field grants several bonuses and unlock three new random inventions which are acquired with gold.

Research points are increased by the Academy city building, and trade goods bonuses (cloth, earthenware, glass and papyrus). They are modified by characters employed as researchers, and Citizen citizen happiness and output.

Aggressive Expansion

Aggressive expansion.png Aggressive Expansion (AE) represents the resentment that other states and pops in your empire have against conquests and other aggressive actions you take. The primary effect of Aggressive Expansion is to decrease the happiness of non-state culture population and lower the loyalty of all subject States, significantly increasing unrest at higher levels and raising the risk of a rebellion. Higher Aggressive Expansion also significantly decreases the opinion of nearby states (though allies have a much reduced opinion malus) and makes it more likely that the nation is viewed as a threat, making it more difficult to conduct diplomacy and encouraging other states to form alliances or defensive leagues against the expanding country. Very high Aggressive Expansion will have an impact on even primary culture pops and reduces political influence generation. Aggressive Expansion has a base value of 0, where it has no effects, and can become arbitrarily high, but cannot become negative.

Each point of Aggressive Expansion has the following modifiers:

Each point of Aggressive Expansion beyond 50 also has the following effects, in addition to the ones above:

  • Political influence.png -0.10% Monthly Political Influence
  • Happiness for same culture modifier.png -0.50% Primary Culture Happiness
  • Agressive expansion impact.png -2.00% Aggressive Expansion Impact

Aggressive Expansion is primarily accrued through conquering new territories or forcing vassalization during a war. Several diplomatic actions, character interactions, and unit abilities also increase Aggressive Expansion.

Aggressive expansion.png gain Type
  • War.png per Territory annexed in War, adjusted by Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact
  • Holy Site.png Removing a treasure from an owned Holy Site
  • Casus belli.png Insult Diplomatic Action
  • War.png per Territory vassalized in War, adjusted by Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact
  • War.png per Territory annexed by subject in War, adjusted by Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact of the overlord

The base Agressive expansion monthly decay.png Aggressive Expansion Decay is -0.20% of current Aggressive Expansion per month, which can be increased by another -0.20% with the Stance appeasement.png Appeasing Diplomatic Stance and another -0.20% if your ruler has the Righteous Righteous trait; however, this decay is active only if your country is not currently on the side of the aggressor in a war. There are also several sources of flat monthlyAgressive expansion monthly change.png Aggressive Expansion Change that is active at all times, including Oratory inventions, government offices, and various deities. All static sources of monthly Aggressive Expansion Change are listed below:

Agressive expansion monthly change.png Type
  • State religion.png Above deities if Holy Site.png holy site is owned
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for above omens if Holy Site.png holy site is owned

Agressive expansion impact.png Aggressive Expansion Impact modifies how much aggressive expansion is accrued from conquering land and vassalizing other states after a war, primarily decreasing the AE cost of conquest. Sources of Aggressive Expansion Impact include Oratory inventions, Laws, ruler traits, heritages, mission/event modifiers, and high aggressive expansion; the last in particular means that at some point above 50 you will accrue very little additional Aggressive Expansion for any further conquests, effectively providing a soft cap to the modifier. The effects of Aggressive Expansion Impact are capped at -95.00%, corresponding to an absolute minimum of 0.05 aggressive expansion per territory annexed or vassalized. Static sources of Aggressive Expansion Impact are listed below:

Agressive expansion impact.png Type
  • Maurya.png Heritage of Chandragupta (Maurya)
-2.00% Aggressive expansion.png per point of Aggressive Expansion above 50
  • State religion.png Above deities if Holy Site.png holy site is owned
  • Casus belli.png Has claim on territory (note: applies when vassalizing as well)

The impact of Aggressive Expansion is felt most in the early game, when diplomacy is most important and the lack of Aggression Expansion Impact means that taking even a few provinces can rack up a large amount of Aggressive Expansion. Governor armies may be necessary to suppress unrest in wrong culture group provinces in order to handle province loyalty and allow for conversion and assimilation to happen, while judicious use of Improving Relations can help prevent the diplomatic situation from getting out of hand. An expansionist empire should focus on sources of Aggressive Expansion Change and Impact, as well as Happiness for wrong culture group modifier.png Wrong Culture Group Happiness bonuses as this is where the bulk of the effects are felt. In the later game, when the player has built up a large empire that can easily stand against its neighbours, developed a large enough base of primary culture provinces that will be largely unaffected by Aggressive Expansion-driven unhappiness, accumulated many of the AE Change and Impact modifiers, and either accrued enough wrong culture group happiness modifiers or have sufficient garrison army capacity to handle different culture group provinces even at relatively high AE values, an empire can take advantage of the Aggressive Expansion Impact for having higher than 50 AE to be able to conquer large amounts of territory at little to no additional aggressive expansion penalty.


Tyranny Tyranny represents the level of oppression in your country and produces resentment against the government by characters and primary culture pops, but also increases the willingness of pops and factions to accede to your demands and the centralization of power. The level of Tyranny must be carefully managed, particularly in the early game, in order to avoid large reductions in character loyalty that can ensue in civil war as well as ensuring the productivity of your primary culture population, but in the later game when inventions and growth in power make characters and pops easier to deal with the increased Senate support for actions and war score cost bonus can become quite useful. The base Tyranny values range from the base value of 0, where it has no effects, to 100, and cannot be negative.

Each point of Tyranny gives the following modifiers:

  • Happiness for same culture modifier.png -0.50% Primary Culture Happiness
  • Warscore cost.png -0.50% War score Cost
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.50% Pop Assimilation Speed
  • 32px -0.25 Loyalty of Generals
  • 32px -0.25 Loyalty of Admirals
  • 32px -0.25 Loyalty of Governors
  • Pop slaves output.png +0.50% National Slave Output
  • Bribe character cost.png -1.00% Imprison Cost
  • Bribe character cost.png -1.00% Execute Cost

In Republics, each point of Tyranny also increases Senatorial Faction support for actions according to the following table:

Action Type Party civic.png Civic / Party military.png Military / Party mercantile.png Mercantile / Party religious.png Religious Faction Support Party populist.png Populist Faction Support
Population.png Character Interactions +1.00% +1.00%
Political influence.png Law Changes +0.50% +1.00%
Stance neutral.png Diplomatic Actions +1.00% +2.00%

Tyranny is primarily increased by various character actions, such as imprisoning, executing, and imposing sanctions on various characters, as well as overriding the will of the Senate in Republics when doing character interactions, changing laws, or conducting diplomacy. There are also many events, particularly those relating to characters and their interactions, that can raise or lower the country's tyranny level. The actions and interactions that cost or change the national Tyranny value are listed below by their base cost, which can be changed by various interaction-specific modifiers:

Tyranny gain Type

Tyranny is primarily lost through Monthly tyranny.png Monthly Tyranny change, which has a base reduction of -0.2 Tyranny per month. This can be increased and changed by many different modifiers, such as certain Oratory inventions, various deity and omen bonuses, ruler attributes and traits, and more, static sources of which are listed below:

Monthly tyranny.png Type
  • State religion.png Above deities if Holy Site.png holy site is owned
  • Idea divine mandate.png Divine Mandate National Idea
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Kopala Omen (Armazic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Spirits of Inspiration Omen (Bon deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Ba'al Qarnaim Omen (Canaanite deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Lenus Omen (Druidic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Diktean Zeus Omen (Hellenic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Nortia Omen (Hellenic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Wisdom of Bhadrabahu Omen (Jain deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Caleb and Joshua Omen (Jewish deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Tir Omen (Khaldic deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Deivas Omen (Matrist deity)
  • Omen.png per 100% omen power for Derzelas Omen (Zalmoxian deity)

In Republics, the Senatorial faction support from even relatively low amounts of Tyranny can be quite useful, making it worthwhile to have some level of Tyranny even in the early game when its effects are hardest to counteract. While monarchies have somewhat less use of Tyranny in the early game where expansion is more likely to be limited by Aggressive Expansion, Tyranny is generally not particularly problematic at lower levels and it is not very important to keep it low unless the nation is already experiencing issues with loyalty. It is worth noting that since Tyranny decay does not scale according to its current value and there are no easy ways to quickly lower it, high Tyranny can be problematic if the state is not prepared, especially if the ruler has low Oratory power.png Charisma.

The main economic impact of Tyranny tends to be in research, since research is produced exclusively by citizens who will get the Happiness for same culture modifier.png Primary Culture Happiness malus with higher tyranny without the compensating factor that the Pop slaves output.png National Slave Output bonus gives for tax income. Therefore in games where research is a particular focus should be wary of high tyranny or otherwise ensure that there are enough other sources of primary culture citizen happiness to counteract the malus. However, generally the most important impact of Tyranny is in character Loyalty, and so prudent character management and/or aiming for character loyalty bonuses are important for dealing with high Tyranny.

In the later game, when the player has accumulated enough loyalty and happiness bonuses to handle the penalties, high Tyranny is much more useful and players can take full advantage of its bonuses, particularly the Warscore cost.png warscore cost reduction. In conjunction with reductions from other sources and growing Aggressive Expansion Impact bonuses, a player with high Tyranny can conquer a vast amount of territory in the lategame as opposed to what is feasible early on. The Pop assimilation.png Pop Assimilation Speed and Pop slaves output.png National Slave Output can also be very useful once the happiness and unrest problems can be properly dealt with, making for a powerful tyrannical empire.

State rank

Diplomacy This a measure of how large a state is, according to land expansion. Ranks are based on the number of currently incorporated territories, each state is qualified under one of the six following tiers.

All states can join alliances with other countries of same level, except for Great Powers.

Migrant Horde Migrant Horde

  • Territory range: 0
  • National manpower: +1000
  • Army weight modifier: -25%
  • Number of Clan Chiefs: +1 (if Tribal)

City State City State

Local Power Local Power

Regional Power Regional Power

Major Power Major Power

Great Power Great Power

Must not be a subject of another state.

Maximum civilization value

The maximum civilization level of any territory being part of a state; it cannot be higher than the country civilization level, which is visible on the Overview Overview panel.

The value is based on the state's government type, modified by up to +10% at 100% centralization level of Tribes, +2% per advance level in Oratory, the national idea State Religion (+10%), gemstones trade good (+5% for capital surplus or +2.5% for exportation bonus), and +5%/+10% capital territory bonuses by forming regional tags (such as Saxonia, Gaul, Albion etc.).