Trade goods

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Trade goods come in a wide variety of types, with 34 different trade goods divided into 6 categories. They allow you to tailor your provinces, and even more so your country, to your needs and desires by controlling what you produce and where you ship it, and are particularly important.



Every territory produces one type of trade good, and all territories in a province contribute their trade goods into a common pool. A territory produces 1 trade good by default (with 2 for cities and 3 for a metropolis), but can produce more with enough Slaves slave labor. For each additional 15 Slaves slaves in a settlement and 20 Slaves slaves in a city or metropolis (rounded down), the territory will produce one more additional trade good.

The threshold for a surplus is reduced for each territory by the Goods from slaves.png Slaves needed for Local Surplus modifier, and across all territories in the country by the Slavesurplus2.png Slaves needed for Surplus modifier. Sources of these modifiers include:

  • Goods from slaves.png -2 by the "Land Seizure Protocol" Land Reforms Law (Requires Civic Advances level 12)
  • Goods from slaves.png -1 by the level 7 Invention.png Slave Latifundia Civic Invention
  • Goods from slaves.png -2 by Farmland farmland terrain type
  • Goods from slaves.png -5 by a Farming Settlement farming settlement or a Mine mine

Some territories also have unique permanent modifiers giving surplus threshold reductions, such as the Rhodian Glass Workshops in Rhodes or the Cedars of the Gods in Phoenicia.

Additionally, the Base resources Base Resource Production modifier increases the base number of trade goods produced regardless of the number of slaves in the territory. The most important sources of base resource production are Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises, which give Base resources +1 and Base resources +2 base resource production, respectively. This means that cities are still a significant source of trade good surpluses even without the high Slave ratio slave ratios and Goods from slaves.png slaves needed for local surplus modifiers that settlements and their buildings give.

Surpluses and trade[edit]

Main article: Trade

A province will have a trade good surplus if it produces more than one of a certain trade good, either because it has more than one territory producing the same trade good and/or if its territories have enough Slaves slaves to produce multiple resources in the territory. A surplus typically gives no inherent bonus except for the stacking base trade good bonus; the main use of surplus trade goods is to trade them away to other provinces for Commerce value.png commerce income, as well as to move the location (and bonuses) of the resource to another province. Imported trade goods contribute to the trade good surplus just like locally produced trade goods, while resources that are exported no longer give their effects to their province of origin.

Each trade good as a certain Base Trade Value that determines the amount of income countries receive from trading the resource. Trading common resources like Grain grain or Furs furs will give much less gold than valuable, exotic goods like Dyes dyes or Gemstones gemstones. For foreign trades (i.e. between provinces belonging to different countries), the exporting province will receive the full base trade value, modified by the country's Export value export value, in Commerce value.png commerce income, while the importing province will receive 0.35 times the base trade value in Commerce value.png commerce income, modified by the country's Import value import value. Domestic trades will instead give only 0.20 times the base trade value for both the importing and exporting provinces. Areas that can produce and export valuable trade goods are therefore generally richer and more lucrative to conquer, but making sure that there are available trade partners is also important.

Trade route requests can only be initiated by the potential importer. Countries hoping to export resources should instead focus on making sure as many surplus trade goods are available as possible and if necessary make sure there are enough potential trading partners in Diplomatic range.pngdiplomatic range, and then wait for trade requests to come in (which generally does not take too long).

Bonuses and effects[edit]

Each individual trade good has a particular bonus that is applied to their province, which stacks based on how many instances of the resource is present. Each category of trade goods has a different set of bonuses - military trade goods allow recruitment of the more specialized unit types as well as giving a small output or resource bonus, food trade goods increase the Monthly food.png available in the province, and trade goods in each of the pop type categories increase the local Pop happy.png happiness of the corresponding class. These bonuses can grow to be quite significant for large and prosperous provinces that produce and import many different trade goods, and are particularly important for providing the Monthly food.png food necessary for more urbanized provinces that have long since outstripped their limited local food supply, as well as increasing the happiness of the normally restive Pop noble.png nobles and Citizens citizens who produce most of the Research points.png research points and Global state trade routes.png trade routes in the country.

Each trade good that has a surplus in the Country capital.png capital province specifically also gives a special nationwide bonus. Unlike the normal province modifier, this bonus is not stackable and is only applied once per trade good, which means that it is generally better to have a large variety of surplus resources in the capital to accumulate as many bonuses as possible. As the capital province is likely to be the most populous province in any case with the most higher-class pops, it is almost always better to focus on accumulating trade good bonuses in the capital above every other province.

Changing trade goods[edit]

In general, trade goods cannot be changed directly by the player. Trade goods can, however, be changed indirectly with the foundation of a city. Agricultural trade goods (Grain grain, Fish fish, Livestock livestock, and Vegetables vegetables) can only be produced in settlements; founding a city on a food-producing territory will replace the trade good once the city is finished, typically with a higher value Nobles or Citizens trade good. The probability can be seen by hovering over the "Found a City" button at the "build" options panel. If the city status is later revoked, the territory will revert to producing its old agricultural trade good. Note that this applies only for cities founded during the game - revoking city status of a city that already exists at start will not change the trade good.

The trade good of a settlement can also be changed by a few special events and missions, most notably the prospecting task of the generic infrastructure mission.

Goods list[edit]

Strategic resources[edit]

Trade good Province modifier Capital surplus Base trade value Description
Iron Iron
  • Allows Unit heavy infantry.png Heavy infantry
  • Tax income.png +2% Local tax
Unit heavy infantry.png +10% Heavy infantry discipline Wealth 0.30 The presence of iron-working defines many cultures. Vastly superior in strength to its predecessor, bronze, iron is unparalleled as a material for tools and weaponry alike.
Horses Horses
  • Allows Unit heavy cavalry.png Heavy cavalry
  • Allows Unit light cavalry.png Light cavalry
  • Population output +1% Population Output
Unit heavy cavalry.png +10% Heavy Cavalry discipline Wealth 0.25 The use of horses in agriculture and warfare is widespread. As beasts of burden, they are well suited to drawing chariots, as well as carrying riders.
Wood Wood
  • Allows Unit hexere.png Hexere
  • Allows Unit tetrere.png Tetrere
  • Allows Unit octere.png Octere
  • Allows Unit mega-polyreme.png Mega-Polyreme
  • Manpower.png +2% Local manpower
Ship recruit speed +25% Ship recruit speed Wealth 0.20 Widely used in construction and shipping, decent timber can command a high price in unforested areas.
Elephants Elephants
  • Allows Unit war elephants.png War elephants
  • Population output +3% Population Output
Unit war elephants.png +10% War elephant discipline Wealth 0.30 Like many beasts of burden, elephants have been used for agricultural, religious and military purposes since their domestication. Many civilizations regard the elephant as a sacred or revered creature.
Steppe horses Steppe horses
  • Allows Unit horse archers.png Horse archers
  • Population output +1% Population Output
Unit horse archers.png +10% Horse Archer discipline Wealth 0.25 Steppe horses, while often smaller and stockier than their western counterparts, are more suited for their life in the arid terrain of the steppe.
Camels Camels
  • Allows Unit camel cavalry.png Camel cavalry
  • Commerce value.png +2% Province commerce
Unit camel cavalry.png +10% Camel discipline Wealth 0.25 Used extensively as beasts of burden and warfare, camels are adept at surviving in harsh, arid climates.


Trade good Province modifier Capital surplus Base trade value Description
Grain Grain Monthly food.png +5 Local monthly food Monthly food.png +5% Global monthly food modifier Wealth 0.20 Grain has long been a staple part of the human diet. Refined into flour, and subsequently bread, the farming of grain provides the vast majority of the food supply for many nations.
Salt Salt Monthly food.png +3% Local monthly food modifier Army maintenance cost.png −5% Army maintenance cost Wealth 0.30 Greatly valued as a food additive and preservation agent, salt is in such high demand that it often serves as a parallel currency.
Fish Fish Monthly food.png +3 Local monthly food Freeman happiness +8% National freeman happiness Wealth 0.20 Fish provide a staple part of the diet and economy of every coastal civilization in the world.
Livestock Livestock Monthly food.png +3 Local monthly food Local pop promotion speed.png +25% Pop promotion speed Wealth 0.30 Encompassing a multitude of domesticated animals, livestock provides numerous goods such as milk, cheese, meat and wool, which drive a significant part of the economy.
Honey Honey Monthly food.png +3% Local monthly food modifier Diplomatic reputation.png +3 Diplomatic reputation Wealth 0.40 Although domestic beekeeping is not widespread, honey is highly sought after as a foodstuff and preservative.
Vegetables Vegetables Monthly food.png +3% Local monthly food modifier Slave move cost −25% Move slaves cost Wealth 0.20 Nuts, seeds, pulses and vegetables are gathered by foragers and subsistence farmers across the world.


Trade good Province modifier Capital surplus Base trade value Description
Papyrus Papyrus Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness Civic tech investment.png +5% Civic tech investment Wealth 0.45 Most of the civilized world uses wax tablets, etchings, and stone carvings to store the written word. Papyrus, however, which is uniquely produced in the Egyptian region, offers much greater ease of access and use.
Cloth Cloth Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness Oratory tech investment.png +5% Oratory tech investment Wealth 0.35 Cloth can be produced from numerous plant or animal products, and is found, in varying quality, at markets throughout the known world.
Dyes Dyes Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness Noble happiness +8% National noble happiness Wealth 0.45 Expensive dyes such as Tyrian purple and kermes are harvested from rare invertebrates in very localized habitats. These colors are particularly sought after by the ruling elite of many cultures, and are bound to command a high price.
Marble Marble Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness Tyranny −0.01 Monthly tyranny Wealth 0.35 Due to its softness and lustrous hue, marble is regarded as the prime material with which to sculpt statues and icons.
Incense Incense Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness State religion happiness +5% State religion happiness Wealth 0.45 The term 'Incense' covers an array of rare, exotic substances which are primarily used for religious purposes.
Silk Silk Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness Noble output +3% Local noble output Wealth 0.40 Shrouded in mystery, the origins of silk cultivation lie in the far east. This exotic fabric is rare enough to command great interest, and an even greater price.


Trade good Province modifier Capital surplus Base trade value Description
Amber Amber Citizen happiness +4% Local citizen happiness Popularity.png +0.05 Monthly ruler popularity gain Wealth 0.50 Formed from the resin of pine trees, the appeal of amber as a decorative material, combined with its scarcity, results in a particularly valuable commodity.
Spices Spices Citizen happiness +4% Local citizen happiness Citizen output +3% National citizen output Wealth 0.45 Primarily used as food additives, the many herbs which comprise the spice trade command a variable price depending on their provenance.
Precious metals Precious metals Citizen happiness +4% Local citizen happiness Citizen happiness +8% National citizen happiness Wealth 0.50 Gold and silver have been regarded as a measure of relative value since the minting of coins began. The history of gold as a commodity is deeply intertwined with its use in religious and mythological imagery.
Earthenware Earthenware Citizen happiness +4% Local citizen happiness Freeman output +3% National freeman output Wealth 0.35 The production of earthenware has been a defining activity of human civilization since the discovery of fire. Earthenware encompasses practical utensils such as bowls and jugs, as well as statues, urns and other decorative items.
Gemstones Gemstones Citizen happiness +4% Local citizen happiness Civilization.png +5% Country civilization level Wealth 0.50 Highly prized as ornamental items, the incredible rarity of gemstones ensures that only the most wealthy will ever possess them.
Glass Glass Citizen happiness +4% Local citizen happiness Civilization.png +5% Country civilization level Wealth 0.40 The production of glass not being widespread, has a great effect on its value as a commodity. Glass beads, decorations and even urns are in high demand throughout the known world.


Trade good Province modifier Capital surplus Base trade value Description
Wine Wine Freeman happiness +4% Local freeman happiness Army maintenance cost.png −5% Army maintenance cost Wealth 0.30 Wine is produced from grapes, raisins and many other fruits, and has myriad uses in recreational, religious, and cultural pursuits. The wine trade is an important part of the Mediterranean economy.
Leather Leather Freeman happiness +4% Local freeman happiness Unit light infantry.png +10% Light infantry defense Wealth 0.20 Tanned hides have numerous applications in domestic and military life. Early shields were often leather clad, softening the blow of any incoming strikes.
Base metals Base metals Freeman happiness +4% Local freeman happiness Unit light infantry.png +10% Light infantry offense Wealth 0.35 Copper, Tin and Lead, whilst unsuitable for military purposes, have long been used in alloying and decoration. Although used ubiquitously, the relative geographical scarcity of these metals results in them commanding high prices throughout the world.
Hemp Hemp Freeman happiness +4% Local freeman happiness Naval damage done.png +10% Ship damage done Wealth 0.25 Cultivated from time immemorial, hemp has been instrumental in the development of clothing and ropes, due to its fibrous nature.
Dates Dates Freeman happiness +4% Local freeman happiness Commerce value.png +5% National commerce income Wealth 0.30 Primarily cultivated in warmer climes, date products are a staple part of the diet in many cultures.

Slaves & Tribesmen[edit]

Trade good Province modifier Capital surplus Base trade value Description
Stone Stone Slave happiness +4% Local slave happiness Build cost.png −10% Build cost Wealth 0.25 Whereas wood will often suffice as a building material for temporary or cheap structures, only stone can yield the kind of permanence desired in a fine civic building or enduring defensive bastion.
Wild game Wild game Tribesman happiness +4% Local tribesman happiness Unit archers.png +10% Archers discipline Wealth 0.20 Since the early days of humanity, hunter-gatherers have regarded wild creatures as a primary source of nourishment. Fine meat is often hard to come by, and can result in a particularly lucrative trade.
Furs Furs Tribesman happiness +4% Local tribesman happiness Experience decay -0.50% Experience decay Wealth 0.20 Furs have been used since time immemorial to shield humans from the biting cold. Ranging from stitched rabbit skins to great bear hides, a good fur can be put to any number of uses.
Olives Olives Slave happiness +4% Local slave happiness Slave happiness +8% National slave happiness Wealth 0.25 Cultivated for millennia, olive products drive a significant part of the Mediterranean economy. Many cultures value the olive as a symbol of fertility and power.
Woad Woad Tribesman happiness +4% Local tribesman happiness Tribesman happiness +8% National tribesman happiness Wealth 0.35 Woad, as well as various other simple dyes, can be refined from the petals of certain wild flowers. Many cultures practice ritual body-painting, as well as the creation of painted iconography, using these colors.


Strategic resources[edit]

Resources of this category grant mainly military bonuses, advantages or features. The production of cavalry in a province is linked to the availability of horses within that province, while the production of ships in a province is linked to the availability of wood within that province. Any lack of a strategic resource leads to a lack of a certain unit or advantage that may force the player to adapt his military strategy.

Pop happiness[edit]

Use provincial trade routes to import goods to increase a pop type's happiness within the province. This works best in provinces with large numbers of the pop type.

Note the trade goods which increase happiness at the state level when the capital has a surplus:

  • Slaves: Olives
  • Tribesmen: Woad
  • Freemen: Fish
  • Citizen: Precious metals
  • Nobles: Dyes


Food resources in a province help feed the pops of the province. If there is a surplus of food (food within the province, not as a resource for national or international trade), the pop growth rate increases. A lack of food leads to a decrease in pops and their happiness. Any lack of food can be prevented, by importing a food surplus from one province to a starving one. Any 1 surplus of a food resource within a province can be transferred within the player's nation by using 1 trade route.

Also, since creating a city removes Food-type Trade Goods from the settlement, such settlements should not be chosen to locate cities.


Military resources affect the quality of units and bonuses of military structures like forts. This type of resource does not change the variety of units the player's nation can build, but it does affect stats and advantages of produced units. Strategic resources should be preferred to military resources: With a hemp surplus in the capital, the ship damage increases about +10%, but missing wood leads to the incapability of building ships and of using the hemp-given advantage of additional damage.