Population

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Imperator: Rome tutorial #3 - pops and cities.

The population of the world in Imperator Rome is represented by individual population units, or pops, each of whom live in a particular territory and owe their allegiance to the country that owns their home. Pops drive the economy and military of a nation and are the most important source of Cost gold (directly through Tax income.png taxes and indirectly through trade, which produces Commerce value.png commerce), Manpower.png manpower, and Research points.png research points, but must also be kept Pop happy.png happy and content lest they drive Unrest.png unrest in their province and revolt. In general, pops cannot be interacted with directly and will Global population growth.png grow, Pop assimilation.png assimilate, Policy religious conversion.png convert, Local pop promotion speed.png promote, and Migration speed migrate of their own accord, but the use of governor policies and the construction of infrastructure can be used to adjust the environment they live in and manipulate and control a country's demographics on a larger, more macro scale.

Social classes[edit]

A pop belongs to one of the five available social classes, or pop types. The social class of a pop is one of its most important properties and determines what a pop produces, its political weight, what happiness modifiers it is affected by, and more.

  1. Pop noble.png Nobles - generate Research points.png research points and Global state trade routes.png trade routes
  2. Citizens Citizens – generate Research points.png research points, Global state trade routes.png trade routes and Manpower.png manpower
  3. Freemen Freemen – generate Manpower.png manpower and Tax income.png tax income
  4. Tribesmen Tribesmen – generate Manpower.png manpower and Tax income.png tax income
  5. Slaves Slaves – generate Tax income.png tax income and Goods from slaves.png additional trade goods

The class structure of a territory's population will approach its optimal ratio over time through pop Local pop promotion speed.png promotion and Local pop demotion speed.png demotion, the value of which is specific to each territory and varies by the territory's buildings and rank, the country's government form, local and national modifiers, and many other factors. This ratio and the rate of change can be affected by player choices, and promotion is additionally restricted by the pop's level of civic rights based on its culture.

There are also a few other effects that can directly change a pop's social class:

  • When a territory is occupied, there is a chance that some pops will be immediately demoted one level: Pop noble.png Nobles ⇒ Citizens Citizens (5% chance), Citizens Citizens ⇒ Freemen Freemen (25% chance), and Freemen Freemen ⇒ Slaves Slaves (25% chance).
  • When any territory is occupied, some of its pops will be enslaved according to the army's Enslavement efficiency.png enslavement efficiency and immediately moved to one of the occupier's territories, usually a provincial or country capital, as a new Slaves slave pop (keeping its culture and religion).
  • Some events can also immediately promote or demote pops.

Nobles[edit]

Nobles icon
Nobles represent the elites in Rome, and nobility in monarchies. Typically, they would be owners of a Latifundium.

Each Noble Pop at Pop happy.png 100% Happiness produces per month:

  • Research points.png +0.5 Research Points
  • Global state trade routes.png +0.15 Trade Routes (not affected by happiness)

Nobles also have the following other properties:

  • 3.00 Political Weight
  • Monthly food.png 0.5 Food Consumption
  • Pop happy.png -20% Base Happiness
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.40 Base Assimilation
  • Policy religious conversion.png +0.40 Base Conversion
  • Local pop demotion speed.png +2 Base Demotion Speed
  • Migration speed +0.4 Base Migration Speed

Nobles only have a relevant desired Ratio in cities, metropolises, and the capital (even if it does not have city status). Their happiness is heavily affected by Civilization.png civilisation level and is in general difficult but important to manage, with both the lowest base happiness and the highest political weight of all pop classes. Both their Noble ratio ratio and Noble happiness happiness can be increased via the Library library, while the Academy academy increases their Noble ratio ratio by half as much along with their (significant) Research points.png research output.

Nobles are generally the most powerful and productive pop type and it can be advantageous to maximize the number of nobles in the country, as long as their happiness can be kept under control - their high Monthly food.png food consumption is significant, particularly in the Country capital.png capital where they are concentrated in large numbers and will often outstrip the local food supply, and their low happiness and high political weight makes them dangerous if not properly appeased. Trade goods are an important source of happiness modifiers, and as they are applied-province wide it is usually best to focus most on noble ratio in cities in the capital province (which has the additional benefit of usually being primarily the primary culture).

Noble civic rights are rather exclusive, giving a combined Integrated culture happiness -4% Integrated Culture Happiness malus and Integrated culture happiness -5% Primary Culture Happiness for every non-primary culture, which means that granting these rights give a heavy penalty and generally only primary culture pops will have the civic right and be able to promote to nobles. However, conquered noble pops will in general remain in significant numbers and non-integrated culture noble pops can be a significant source of Unrest.png unrest when conquering the cities and especially capital provinces of other countries, and will additionally be slow to assimilate, convert, and demote, ensuring that they can be a persistent problem.

Citizens[edit]

Citizens icon
Citizens represent those with a privileged legal status in Rome.

Each Citizen Pop at Pop happy.png 100% Happiness produces per month:

  • Research points.png +0.2 Research Points
  • Global state trade routes.png +0.03 Trade Routes (not affected by happiness)
  • Manpower.png +2 Manpower (per year)

Citizens also have the following other properties:

  • 1.50 Political Weight
  • Monthly food.png 0.3 Food Consumption
  • Pop happy.png -10% Base Happiness
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.60 Base Assimilation
  • Policy religious conversion.png +0.60 Base Conversion
  • Local pop promotion speed.png +6 Base Promotion Speed
  • Local pop demotion speed.png +4 Base Demotion Speed
  • Migration speed +0.6 Base Migration Speed

Citizens generally only have a significant desired ratio in cities, metropolises, and the capital (even if it does not have city status), though most larger settlements will usually have room for one or two citizen pops as well. Both their Citizen ratio ratio and Citizen happiness happiness can be increased by the Court of Law court of law. Citizen civic rights are associated with Integrated.png integrated cultures, and only integrated culture pops will be able to promote to citizens, which can prove to be an obstacle to gaining more citizens in cities with a high non-integrated culture population.

In general, citizens can be considered a weaker form of nobles - less production per pop, but easier to feed, please, and promote to, with a higher desired ratio and a less expensive civic right. In most cities they will still make up a significant form of the population, and can be useful to focus on in cities dominated by Integrated.png integrated cultures that have not been given the full noble civic right.

Freemen[edit]

Freemen icon
Freemen represent the plebeians of Rome. Artisans and small holders.

Each Freeman Pop at Pop happy.png 100% Happiness produces per month:

  • Tax income.png +0.005 Base Tax
  • Manpower.png +4 Manpower (per year)

Freemen also have the following other properties:

  • 1.00 Political Weight
  • Monthly food.png 0.2 Food Consumption
  • Pop happy.png 0% Base Happiness
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.60 Base Assimilation
  • Policy religious conversion.png +0.60 Base Conversion
  • Local pop promotion speed.png +6 Base Promotion Speed
  • Local pop demotion speed.png +6 Base Demotion Speed
  • Migration speed +1 Base Migration Speed

Freemen are found primarily in cities, but also have a significant base optimal ratio (20%) in the Territory settlement.png settlements of monarchies and republics. They are somewhat easier to maintain than citizens, but about equally affected by Civilization.png civilisation level. While freemen produce some Tax income.png tax their primary contribution is as main source of Manpower.png manpower, so their usefulness is highly situational depending on how much additional manpower is needed (mostly medium-size countries that have enough pops to make a significant difference, while not being so large that additional manpower is not really needed). Both their Freeman ratio ratio and Freeman happiness happiness can be increased via the Forum forum in Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises, and Barracks barracks in Territory settlement.png settlements, and as the default civic right in non-integrated cultures they will tend to be disproportionate represented in those areas.

Tribesmen[edit]

Tribesmen icon
These represent uncivilized folks, barbarians.

Each Tribesmen Pop at Pop happy.png 100% Happiness produces per month:

  • Tax income.png +0.008 Base Tax
  • Manpower.png +3 Manpower

Tribesmen also have the following other properties:

  • 0.75 Political Weight
  • Monthly food.png 0.1 Food Consumption
  • Pop happy.png 16% Base Happiness
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.40 Base Assimilation
  • Policy religious conversion.png +0.40 Base Conversion
  • Local pop promotion speed.png +4 Base Promotion Speed
  • Local pop demotion speed.png +2 Base Demotion Speed
  • Migration speed +2 Base Migration Speed

Tribesmen have a relatively high base happiness, but unlike all other pop classes receive a penalty for Civilization.png Civilisation level. Their production is comparable to Freemen freemen, with a focus on Manpower.png manpower and some amount of Tax income.png tax income, though actually getting those outputs is generally easier with their higher base happiness. In Territory settlement.png settlements, tribesmen Tribesman output output and Tribesman happiness happiness can be increased by building Tribal Settlement Tribal Settlements.

For tribal nations, they make up 50% of the Settlement Population, limiting the space available for Slaves slaves and thus trade goods and tax production. In any cities, they are less common, but still have a noticeable ratio. Tribesmen will therefore usually make up a large proportion of a tribal country's population, increasing their Manpower.png manpower relative to what would be expected from their population but usually with less income. Tribesmen also have a high base Migration speed migration speed which means that they will move around significantly more quickly than other pop types.

For non-tribal nations, while they are technically superior to Freemen freemen the significant happiness penalties from Civilization.png civilization value means that tribesmen are usually much better off be promoted or demoted to one of the other classes. For these nations, they have a desired ratio of 0% at any location unless a Tribal Settlement Tribal Settlement is built, though their slow promotion/demotion speed means that tribesman-heavy territories will usually take some time to become properly useful.

Slaves[edit]

Slaves icon
Slaves are mostly prisoners of war (POWs).

Each Slave Pop produces per month:

  • Tax income.png +0.015 Base Tax

Slaves also have the following other properties:

  • 0.35 Political Weight
  • Pop happy.png -30% Base Happiness
  • Monthly food.png 0.1 Food Consumption
  • Pop assimilation.png +0.60 Base Assimilation
  • Policy religious conversion.png +0.60 Base Conversion
  • Local pop promotion speed.png +10 Base Promotion Speed
  • Migration speed +0.05 Base Migration Speed

Slaves are the backbone of almost every economy during the time frame of the game and the primary source of income for many countries. There is no nation or territory that does not want, doesn't need or doesn't have slaves. They are mostly found in Territory settlement.png settlements, where they have a base optimal ratio of 80% (monarchy/republic) or 50% (tribal) of the population, but are also found in significant proportions in cities. Their Slave happiness happiness, Slave output output and Slave ratio desired ratio can all be increased by the Mill mill in territories with city status, and Slave output output by the Slave Estate slave estate in Territory settlement.png settlements. While slaves can appear through demotion and population growth like all other pop types, slaves can also uniquely be acquired through Enslavement efficiency.png the enslavement of pops when occupying enemy territories, as well as through Slave raid slave raiding for countries with the relevant military traditions. For many war-focused countries, enslavement can be the primary source of population growth in a nation's core territories, with slaves eventually assimilating/converting and promoting up to swell the ranks of the upper classes as well.

In addition to producing more Tax income.png tax income than any other pop type, slaves can also uniquely produce additional trade goods in a territory, based on the Goods from slaves.png slaves needed for local surplus value of the territory. This value is a base of 15 in Territory settlement.png settlements and 20 in Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises, which can be lowered by the Mine mine and Farming Settlement farming settlement buildings in Territory settlement.png (as well as a large variety of other modifiers), and gives 1 extra trade good for every multiple (rounded down) of the Goods from slaves.png slaves needed for local surplus in slaves there are in that territory.

Their happiness can be difficult to keep high, as those captured in war tend to be of the wrong culture and religion. Importantly, however, the output of slaves does not depend on their happiness, which means that the primary concern of slave happiness is controlling the Unrest.png unrest they produce, which given their low political weight is typically not too high.

Output[edit]

Depending on their class, pops produce various different types of resources, including Wealth gold, Manpower.png manpower, and Research points.png research points, and are the often main (or only) source of these resources in the game. In addition to the output modifiers for each specific resource, the Local output population output modifier will also increase the production of all resources produced by pops, and is in general one of the most powerful economic modifiers in the game. Pop output modifiers combine additively with resource-specific modifiers, but are combined multiplicatively with the output modifier from Pop happy.png happiness (for classes where happiness is relevant to production). This gives the following formula for the output of each individual resource produced by a pop:

Note that unlike with all other resources, output modifiers do not affect the number of Global state trade routes.png trade routes produced by a pop, which is always constant for each pop (depending on its class).

Some of the more important sources of population Local output output modifiers include:

  • -25% in Territory settlement.png settlements
  • +10% in the Country capital.png capital territory
  • +10% in Province capital province capitals
  • +1% for each Foundry Foundry (in territories with Territory city.png city status)
  • -10% if the Policy cultural assimilation.png dominant culture in the territory is not an Integrated.png integrated culture
  • -20% in occupied territories
  • +1% for each Horses Horses trade good in the province
  • +1% for each Steppe horses Steppe Horses trade good in the province
  • +3% for each Elephants Elephants trade good in the province
  • +4% from each Military province investment Provincial Procurators province investment
  • -4% per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of -4% with the Harsh treatment.png Harsh Treatment governor policy
  • -4% per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of -4% with the Policy local autonomy.png Local Autonomy governor policy
  • +10% in the Country capital.png capital province
  • +2.5% per governor Civic power.png finesse
  • +10% in the Country capital.png capital region

Pop output can also be affected on a class-specific basis with the Noble output local/national noble output, Citizen output citizen output, Freeman output freeman output, Tribesman output tribesman output, and Slave output slave output modifiers. Like with happiness modifiers, each of these modifiers has three different variants that determine which determine its scope - local, which only affects pops of that class in a particular territory; culture, which affects all pops of that class with a specific Policy cultural assimilation.png culture, or national, which affects all pops of a certain class in an entire country. These modifiers are in general much more common than the general pop output modifier and can come from a large variety of sources, such as buildings, trade goods, deities and omens, laws and government forms, inventions, governor traits, and more.

Happiness[edit]

You can find the happiness of each pop by going to the Province tab, and then hovering on the icon of one of the pops available

Pop happy.png Happiness represents how content and satisfied a particular pop is with the current government, affecting both how much of its production actually gets collected by the state as well as how willing the pop is to support resistance - or even rebellion - against the current government. Each of the five pop types has a certain base happiness value, varying from -30% for Slaves slaves to 16% for Tribesmen tribesmen. Then, there are a large number of local and national happiness modifiers that are applied, including but not limited to:

In general, there are 4 different sets of modifiers that will each affect a different set of pops:

  • General happiness modifiers (Pop happy.png (Local) Population Happiness)
  • Pop class modifiers (Noble happiness Noble Happiness, Citizen happiness Citizen Happiness, Freeman happiness Freeman Happiness, Tribesman happiness Tribesman Happiness, and Slave happiness Slave Happiness modifiers)
    • Each of these modifiers has three variants: Local Happiness, applied to a single territory or province; Culture Happiness, applied to pops of a particular culture; and National Happiness, applied to all pops of the specific class across the whole country
  • Culture modifiers (Pop happy.png Culture Happiness, Integrated culture happiness Integrated Culture Happiness, Unintegrated culture happiness Unintegrated Culture Happiness, and Unintegrated culture group happiness Unintegrated Culture Group Happiness modifiers)
  • Religion modifiers (State religion happiness State Religion Happiness and Change pantheon cost modifier.png state religion pantheon deity modifiers)

A pop's happiness is the sum of all happiness modifiers it is affected by over its base happiness value, and has a range of 0% to 100%, with 50% the median value at which they are neither content nor discontent. The average happiness of all pops of a particular class is displayed in the territory view.

Happiness has two main effects on a pop:

  • Local output Output: a pop's output (except for Slaves slaves) is scaled according its current happiness, before other modifiers are applied. For instance, a freeman pop at 50% happiness generates a base of only Manpower.png 2 Manpower instead of 4.
  • Unrest.png Unrest: any pop with happiness less than 50% will generate unrest in the territory it currently resides in, scaled by its happiness and political weight, which acts as a multiplier on how much unrest it produces - for instance, an angry Pop noble.png noble pop will produce far more unrest than a discontent Slaves slave. High unrest will lower Province loyalty province loyalty and may eventually lead to rebellions.

The unrest produced by each unhappy pop is scaled to the total population of the territory, the pop's political weight, and how much its happiness is below 50%, giving a formula of approximately:

The total unrest for each territory is simply the sum of the unrest produced over all its pops.

Strategy[edit]

As with all modifiers, national modifiers are almost always better than local modifiers, even if the value is somewhat weaker. Even relatively small changes in happiness can have a noticeable impact on pop output or unrest generated if applied across a large enough number of pops.

Generally, the largest differences in overall population happiness are between integrated cultures and unintegrated, especially unintegrated culture group, pops, with different strategies relevant in each area. While there can be significant differences in pop class happiness, these are usually not too relevant as, for instance, Slaves slaves do not have an output difference from happiness and have a political weight too low to be particularly relevant, while for many countries Tribesmen tribesmen will only exist in appreciable quantities in recently conquered areas where low happiness is to be expected in the first place.

In core, primary/integrated culture and state religion areas, happiness will rarely be low enough to produce any significant unrest and the primary concern of happiness is instead to maximize pop output, as these are often the most populated and productive parts of a country. Since Slaves slaves do not change their output based on happiness, the primary focus in core areas is to maximize the happiness of the highly productive Pop noble.png nobles and then Citizens citizens, typically by building their associated buildings in Territory city.png cities, importing their specific trade goods (generally only available in significant quantities a little bit into the game), and increasing Civilization.png civilization level (though only as a general, long term goal). Focusing on Freemen freemen happiness may also be situationally useful, but by the time a country is wealthy enough to invest in Freemen freemen it usually no longer has a pressing need for more manpower, at least as opposed to Research points.png research and Commerce value.png commerce income (from trade routes). Note that happiness is capped at 100%, which can often be exceeded by the accumulation of various bonuses by the midgame, and while it can be useful to have some buffer in case Stability.png stability drops or War exhaustion.png war exhaustion increases at some point increasing happiness ceases to be useful and it can be better to invest building or trade route slots into other areas.

In contrast, recently conquered provinces of an unintegrated culture (especially of a different culture group) and different religion will be particularly difficult to please, and in general unless the country has a large number of Unintegrated culture group happiness unintegrated culture group happiness bonuses they will be virtually impossible to satisfy completely. For these areas, trying to fully manage happiness is very costly and it is easiest to just appoint a loyal, uncorrupt governor and build enough Fortification.png forts in the province to keep Unrest.png unrest and Province loyalty province loyalty under control in the short to medium term; if not even this is enough, the easiest way to quickly reduce the penalties from unhappiness is to try to appease any nobles and/or citizens in the province (who are normally the most unhappy as well as the largest generators of unrest), typically by building their happiness-improving buildings in the cities and/or importing the specific trade goods that improve their happiness. If Stability.png stability is low, focusing on raising that can also help significantly with happiness problems. Over time pops will convert/assimilate and become happier, decreasing the proportion of discontent pops to the point where the forts may no longer be needed - building a Theater grand theater and Temple great temple in the main cities of the province can speed this up process significantly.

Assimilation[edit]

Main article: Assimilation

A pop's culture can change to the nation's primary culture via Pop assimilation.png assimilation. For every territory, a single randomly chosen pop will always be assimilating as long as that territory holds pops that are not of an integrated culture and are not otherwise busy (e.g. converting or promoting). Assimilation progress builds each month, with the exact progress determined by the sum of all Assimilation speed.png Pop Assimilation Speed modifiers. Once progress reaches 100%, the pop will be assimilated to the primary culture and another pop will begin to assimilate, if there are any other pops that can be assimilated. Integrated.png Integrated cultures will never assimilate.

Given that pops of unintegrated pops cannot be raised in a country's army and usually have significant happiness penalties, it is generally beneficial to assimilate any non-integrated culture pops in the country. Using the Policy cultural assimilation.png Cultural Assimilation governor policy, founding colonies, building Theater grand theaters, and passing the laws with assimilation bonuses for tribes and monarchies will speed up the assimilation, but in general provinces - especially more populated settlements, as Territory city.png cities generally have disproportionately faster assimilation - may take decades before they are significantly assimilated. However, as integrated pops count against Research points.png research efficiency while non-integrated pops do not, integrating a large amount of pops - particularly those that are primarily of the lower classes - can have a significant impact on research progression if additional measures in that area are not taken.

Conversion[edit]

Main article: Conversion

Policy religious conversion.png In every territory, a single pop can undergo conversion to the state religion at a time, as long as there are any pops in that territory that can convert and are not otherwise busy (e.g. assimilating or promoting). Outside of events, pops will always convert to the state religion. Conversion progress builds each month, with the exact progress determined by the sum of all Policy religious conversion.png Pop Conversion Speed modifiers. Once progress reaches 100%, the pop will be converted to the state religion and another pop will begin to convert, if there are any other pops that can be converted. The speed of conversion is influenced by many factors, particularly the Policy religious conversion.png Religious Conversion governor policy and the dominant province Policy cultural assimilation.png culture and Religious power.png religion being different from the state culture and religion. Note that it is possible for conversion to be completely stalled.

All else being equal, it is generally preferable to convert pops to the state religion, though the differences in happiness are much less than with unintegrated culture or culture group pops and can be ameliorated by adopting deities of the pop's religion in the pantheon (though this will necessarily come at the expense of the happiness of pops of other religions), which generally makes conversion less important than assimilation. Under some circumstances it may also be beneficial to retain pops of other religions in order to have continued access to their deities, though the strong effects of religious unity on Omen.png omen power means that it is still generally undesirable to have too many other pops of a non-state religion.

Population Change[edit]

Population Growth[edit]

Global population growth.png The main way that new pops appear in the game is through natural population growth. Every colonizable territory in the game will have one randomly chosen pop growing at a time, gaining progress each month according to the territory's Population Growth Speed, determined by the sum of all Global population growth.png local and national population growth modifiers. Once the population growth progress reaches 100%, a new pop will be created in the territory with the same pop class, culture, and religion of the pop it originally grew from. Note that a pop will continue to grow even if the pop it is growing from its killed, moved away, changed in any way, which might result in a newly grown pop no longer sharing the same characteristics of the original pop once it finishes if the original pop changed in the meantime.

Important sources of population growth are listed below:

  • +0.01% base value for all territories
  • +0.003% per point of Civilization.png civilization value
  • -0.03% for each Population.png pop over the Population capacity population capacity
  • +0.02% for every 12 months of Monthly food.png the province's total food consumption that the province has stored, up to a maximum of 120 Months
  • -0.06% for blockaded territories
  • -0.01% for looted territories
  • -0.20% for raided territories
  • -0.25% for pillaged territories
  • +0.5% for depopulated territories
  • +0.03% when at peace
  • +0.01% for every point of Stability.png stability over 50
  • +0.025% for each tier of a Gw map icon.png great wonder's Gw effect expanding population.png Fertile Nation effect
  • +0.01% with the Invention.png Grain Rations (Religious power.png Religious Advances 1), +0.02% with Invention.png Obstetrics (Religious power.png Religious Advances 10), and +0.02% with Invention.png Encouragement of Migration (Religious power.png Religious Advances 14)
  • +0.10% as a passive modifier of many deities (+0.125% if the Holy Site.png holy site is held)
  • +0.08% per Omen.png 100% omen power for many Omen.png omens (+0.10% per Omen.png 100% omen power if the Holy Site.png holy site is held)
  • +0.05% with the Enact law cost modifier.png Infrastructure Policy Monarchy law
  • +0.03% with Flag of Epidauros Epidauran Heritage (Epiduaros), Flag of Halikarnassos Halicarnassan Heritage (Halikarnassos), Flag of Metapontum Metapontine Heritage (Metapontum), Flag of Kios Ciusan Heritage (Kios)
  • -0.01% with Euboean Heritage (cultural)
  • +0.02% from governors with Gluttonous Gluttonous trait
  • -0.02% from governors with :Self-controlled Self-controlled trait

If aiming to boost population growth, Stability.png stability (while it gives the highest potential growth rate, it is the most costly to keep high) and Monthly food.png stored food are generally the most effective. The other modifiers are smaller and generally have a higher opportunity cost. There are also a large number of other modifiers from events, decisions, and missions that can increase or decrease population growth in a territory, most notably the Roman Warm Period.

If the population growth speed is negative - usually as a result of starvation, or sometimes significant overpopulation - pops in the territory will instead begin to die. Any pop that is growing will instead begin to lose progress, and if it reaches 0 a randomly pop will be chosen to begin dying. The progress bar will be reset to 100% and gradually lose progress according to the current population growth speed, and once the growth progress reaches 0 the pop will be killed and another pop will begin to die.

Note that population growth in general does not scale according to the actual population of the territory, but instead remains constant as the population grows (within the Population capacity population capacity). This means that population growth tends to be linear over the course of the game, not exponential, and that population growth generally scales best to the Local.png number of owned territories rather than the Population.png population of a country.

Occupation[edit]

When a territory is occupied an by army led by a Position general, around one third of all captured pops (the amount determined by the Enslavement efficiency.png enslavement efficiency of the occupying army) will be killed rather than enslaved and sent back to the homeland, which in a large scale war can result in a significant amount of pops that are killed. When a Territory city.png city, Territory metropolis.png metropolis, or Country capital.png is occupied, the general of the army will also get an event to decide how much to sack the city, which can result in further loss of population if the general decides to let the army loose.

Pop Movement[edit]

While every pop lives in a certain territory, they are generally not directly bound to their current home and under various circumstances may decide to move, or be forcibly moved, to another territory. In addition to events, decisions, missions, and certain interactions, there are a number of mechanics by which pops can move from territory to territory, some happening passively with others depending more strongly on the country's actions.

Migration[edit]

Migration speed Free pops will migrate of their own volition to nearby territories in pursuit of economic opportunities. A territory's general attractiveness for migration is represented by its Migration attraction migration attraction, which is determined largely by available Population capacity population capacity and Civilization.png civilization value, but can also be decreased by disruptive actions and events such as Unrest.png unrest, sieges and occupation, starvation, and overpopulation, usually significantly so. Certain governor policies can also be used to some extent to adjust migration attraction.

Important modifiers to Migration attraction migration attraction include:

  • +1 base value for all territories
  • -3 for Territory settlement.png settlements
  • +2 for Territory metropolis.png metropolises
  • +0.15 for each free slot of Population capacity population capacity
  • +0.05 per point of Civilization.png civilization value
  • +2 for the Country capital.png capital
  • +1 if the territory is a Province capital province capital
  • +5 if the territory has a Holy Site.png holy site
  • +0.05 for each outgoing Ability road building.png road in a territory
  • +1 for territories adjacent to a River major river
  • +0.1 per level of Port icon.png port
  • -1 for each point of Unrest.png unrest
  • -10 if the territory is Food deficiency.png starving
  • -4 for each Population.png pop over the Population capacity population capacity
  • -10 if the territory is occupied
  • -30 if the territory is under siege
  • -2 if the territory was recently looted
  • +5 if the territory was depopulated
  • -0.6 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of -6 with the Harsh treatment.png Harsh Treatment governor policy
  • +0.1 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +1 in the Province capital province capital with the Centralize pop.png Centralize Population governor policy
  • -0.5 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of 5 in non-Province capital province capital territories with the Centralize pop.png Centralize Population governor policy
  • -0.5 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of 5 in the Province capital province capital with the Decentralize pop.png Decentralize Population governor policy
  • +0.1 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +1 in non-Province capital province capital territories with the Decentralize pop.png Decentralize Population governor policy

All pops other than Slaves slaves are eligible to migrate as long as it is not currently busy (Pop assimilation.png assimilating, Policy religious conversion.png converting, Local pop promotion speed.png promoting, or Local pop demotion speed.png demoting), and the pop that migrates is chosen at random. Every territory can then have 1 pop that is migrating away to another territory with higher Migration attraction migration attraction, with pops generally preferring targets with higher attraction. There is no limit, however, to the number of pops that can be immigrating to territory at a given time, which generally results in territories with high Migration attraction migration attraction receiving a disproportionate share of migrants. Pops can migrate between neighbouring territories (including those with a different owner, though not to or from uncolonized territories), territories in the same province, or between more distant territories that both have Port icon.png ports in their province, as long as they are part of the same country.

As with all passively occurring pop activities, when a pop is emigrating it will gain a certain amount of progress each month, determined by the combined Migration speed migration speed modifiers of the pop, territory (that the pop is emigrating from), and the country, with the pop moving to its new home once the progress bar reaches 100%. Each pop class has a certain base migration speed, with Tribesmen tribesmen the fastest and Pop noble.png nobles and Citizens citizens the slowest, while migrating from Territory settlement.png settlements is also much slower than from Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises. Geographical considerations such as being adjacent to a River river, being on the Coastal Sea coast, and especially having a Port icon.png port will increase migration speed, as do factors disrupting life in the territory of origin such as Unrest.png unrest, overpopulation, and starvation. Migration speed can be further increased by certain Enact law cost modifier.png laws, Invention.png inventions, and governor policies, as well.

Important modifiers to Migration speed migration speed include:

  • +1 for Pop noble.png nobles
  • +1 for Citizens citizens
  • +2 for Freemen freemen
  • +3 for Tribesmen tribesmen
  • +0.05 for Slaves slaves
  • +10% for each outgoing Ability road building.png
  • -75% for Territory settlement.png settlements
  • +10% for territories with a River nearby river
  • +25% for territories adjacent to a River major river
  • +0.25 if the territory is Coastal Sea coastal
  • -25% for normal winters
  • -50% for severe winters
  • +0.1 per level of Port icon.png port
  • -25% from a Barracks Barracks
  • -25% from a Slave Estate Slave Estate
  • -25% from a Mine Mine
  • -25% from a Farming Settlement Farming Settlement
  • +75% from a Provincial Legation Provincial Legation
  • +25% for each point of Unrest.png unrest
  • +10 if the territory is Food deficiency.png starving
  • +3 for each Population.png pop over the Population capacity population capacity
  • +2.5% for each owned Port icon.png port in the province
  • +0.1 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +1 with the Harsh treatment.png Harsh Treatment governor policy
  • +0.2 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +2 with the Centralize pop.png Centralize Population governor policy
  • +0.2 per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +2 with the Decentralize pop.png Decentralize Population governor policy
  • +10% with the Invention.png Coloniae invention
  • +0.05% for each point of ruler Corruption.png corruption
  • +1.5 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Military Settlement Policy Republic law
  • +1.5 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Lex Servilia Glaucia Flag of Rome Roman Republic law
  • +5% with Flag of Nabatea Nabatean Heritage (Nabatea)

While seemingly quite slow, migration can be a powerful force over the course of the game, and generally gives a substantial contribution to the population growth of cities. Migration between Port icon.png port provinces is particularly powerful given the much larger pool of territories that immigrants can be drawn from, which makes it particularly useful to place the Country capital.png capital and/or other major economic centres at ports beyond the base bonuses that they give. On a smaller scale, immigration from settlements in the countryside to the local provincial capital or other nearby cities also contributes to urbanization over the course of the game, at least in settled nations; while the predominant Slaves slaves in territories cannot migrate, the local Freemen freemen can, which reduces the ratio of freemen in the settlement and, unless disabled, allows the remaining Slaves slaves to promote into their place, allowing for further migration.

Manual Movement[edit]

While Slaves slaves cannot migrate on their own, they can still be moved manually by their owner country through the territory population interface to any owned territory that either neighbours or is in the same province as the territory of origin. Tribal nations can additionally manually move owned Tribesmen tribesmen pops through the same mechanic as well. Unlike migration, manual movement of pops happens instantaneously with no cooldowns or other restrictions - if desired, a single pop can be moved multiple times between many different territories on the same day - though there is also a base cost of Wealth 5 gold every time a pop is moved, which for Slaves slaves can be modified by the Slave move cost move slaves cost modifier, available only as a -25% reduction with the Vegetables vegetables capital bonus.

Moving Slaves slaves can to an extent can be used to control and manage the country's production of trade goods, as the number of trade goods is determined in part by how many multiples of the local Goods from slaves.png slaves needed for local surplus value there is in the local Slaves slave population, by just generally moving them to territories that produce more desirable trade goods or more careful optimization to push a territory's Slaves slave population just over the next threshold for producing another instance of the trade good sooner than population growth would have occurred naturally. Using rural Slaves slaves to increase the population of nearby Territory city.png cities can also be useful to speed up urbanization, as most of the slaves will eventually promote and begin producing other resources such as Manpower.png manpower, Research points.png research points, and Global state trade routes.png trade routes that may be more useful. Note that moving the last pop away from a territory will decolonize the territory and make it unowned.

In addition, manually moving pops is particularly useful for quickly shifting the demographics of a territory to have a dominant Policy cultural assimilation.png integrated culture and Religious power.png state religion to meet the requirements for colonization more quickly than Pop assimilation.png assimilation and Policy religious conversion.png conversion would normally allow. Note that with sufficient gold, a Slaves slave pop (or a Tribesmen tribesmen pop, for tribal countries) can be moved an arbitrarily large distance between connected territories by moving the pop to the edge of the province, using the adjacency condition to move the pop into an adjacent territory in the next territory, and continuing until the pop has been moved to its desired location. This means that even territories far away from a significant source of Policy cultural assimilation.png integrated culture and Religious power.png state religion pops can have pops moved there to begin colonization, if the country is willing to spend enough Wealth gold.

Enslavement[edit]

Main article: Enslavement

When an army with a Position general occupies territories of an enemy nation, some of the pops in the territory may be Enslavement efficiency.png enslaved, forcibly demoted to Slaves slave status (but retaining their culture and religion) and sent back to the homeland as a spoil of war. The number of pops that are captured is a percentage of the territory's population depending on the occupying army's Enslavement efficiency.png enslavement efficiency, and of those, around 2/3 will actually be enslaved and sent back to the homeland (with the other 1/3 of captured pops killed instead). The enslaved pops will generally be distributed according to a territory's Migration attraction migration attraction, preferring the Country capital.png capital territory (and to a lesser extent Province capital province capitals) while strongly avoiding any territories that are at or above their Population capacity population capacity.

Enslavement is one of the most powerful ways to increase a country's population, besides direct conquest, if there are accessible areas that the country can easily occupy, and it is often a good idea to occupy even unimportant territories in enemy countries in order to maximize the number of pops that can be enslaved. The general concentration of enslaved pops in cities also means that they will usually eventually promote, swelling the ranks of the higher classes as well.

While sacking large cities and populous areas can be a great economic and demographic boon to the homeland, the reverse is equally true for areas that have seen their pops enslaved, making enemy occupation dangerous and potentially ruinous even if no demands are actually enforced against the country. Even the most highly populated areas will eventually be heavily or even completely ruined and depopulated as their pops are killed or carted off if they are constantly sacked, occupied, and fought over.

Colonization[edit]

Main article: Colonization

When a nearby unowned territory is colonized, one integrated culture state religion pop will be moved from the origin of colonization to the territory being colonized.

Population Capacity[edit]

Population capacity Each territory has a certain population capacity, which determines how large of a Population.png population a territory's terrain and infrastructure can support. Territories have a base Population capacity population capacity of 10, which is modified by a number of modifiers from terrain, technology, buildings, events, and more. Knowing which territories are good for population growth is essential in city placement and economic planning; it is almost always better to construct new Territory city.png cities in territories with a higher base population capacity, as larger cities are almost always richer and more productive than smaller ones, and Population capacity population capacity is usually the main factor that restricts the growth of cities. Note that Population capacity population capacity is a different value and modifier, though related, from Monthly food.png food, which also services as a limitation to the population of a territory.

Some of the most important modifiers to Population capacity population capacity include:

  • +5 for Territory settlement.png settlements
  • +22 for Territory city.png cities
  • +30 and +10% for Territory metropolis.png metropolises
  • +0.25% per point of Civilization.png civilization value
  • +10% for Farmland farmland terrain
  • -10% for Forest forest terrain
  • -10% for Marsh marsh terrain
  • -15% for Jungle jungle terrain
  • -20% for Mountains mountains terrain
  • -30% for Desert desert terrain
  • +5% if there is a River nearby river
  • +10% if adjacent to a River major river
  • +5% for Coastal Sea coastal territories
  • +5% for territories with a Warm Climate
  • -15% for territories with a Arid Climate
  • -20% for territories with a Frigid Climate
  • -25% for territories with a Alpine Climate
  • -75% if the province has run out of Monthly food.png food and has a Critical Food Supply
  • +10 in the Country capital.png capital territory
  • +6 in Province capital province capitals
  • +1 per level of Port icon.png port
  • +10% from Tribal Settlement tribal settlements
  • +4 from Aqueduct aqueducts
  • -10% from Earthworks earthworks
  • +5% from a Gw map icon.png great wonder with a tier I Gw effect expanding population.png Fertile Nation effect
  • +7.5% from a Gw map icon.png great wonder with tier II Gw effect expanding population.png Fertile Nation effect
  • +10% from a Gw map icon.png great wonder with tier III Gw effect expanding population.png Fertile Nation effect
  • +15% from a Gw map icon.png great wonder with tier IV Gw effect expanding population.png Fertile Nation effect
  • +2.5% from each Civic province investment State Infrastructure province investment
  • +25% from the Idea city plan.png City Planning national idea
  • +2% from each level of Civic power.png Civic Advances
  • +10% from the Invention.png Pedagoguery invention
  • +5% from the Flag of Seleukid Empire Seleukid Empire unique Invention.png Imperial Calendar invention
  • -20% for Menu government.png tribal countries
  • +10% as a passive modifier of many deities (+12.5% if the Holy Site.png holy site is held)
  • +5% from Flag of Maurya Heritage of Chandragupta (Maurya)
  • +10% from River Plains group heritage

It is theoretically possible to raise the population capacity of any territory as high as desired by stacking bonuses from the Civic province investment State Infrastructure province investment and Civic power.png Civic Advances, but the small percentage increases means that this is prohibitively expensive. However, as in Territory city.png cities and metropolises every 10 pops unlocks a new Local building slot.png building slot, it is possible to stack city population capacity arbitrarily high (given enough time) by building Aqueduct aqueducts if the total of the percentage modifiers is at least 150% - possible with a reasonable number of Civic province investment State Infrastructure province investments by the midgame - which will make each Aqueduct aqueduct give +10 population capacity, enough to create another building slot to build another Aqueduct aqueduct once the population capacity has been filled. It is usually strongest to do this in the Country capital.png capital, which has a number of bonuses that makes each individual pop even more productive.

If a territory exceeds its Population capacity population capacity, it will get one instance of the Overpopulation modifier for every pop over the Population capacity population capacity, giving:

  • Migration attraction -3 Migration Attraction
  • Pop happy.png -4% Local Population Happiness
  • Migration speed +1 Migration Speed
  • Global population growth.png -0.04% Local Population Growth

The Population.png population of territory with any significant amount of overpopulation will therefore usually quickly fall back down through Migration speed migration and population death, while population growth from natural growth, immigration, and Enslavement efficiency.png enslavement will be quickly stalled, providing an effective soft cap on the population that a territory can sustainably have. It is generally rarely worth having an overpopulated territory, unless the territory only needs to go slightly over the Population capacity population capacity to meet the threshold to produce another trade good.

Pop Ratio[edit]

Every territory has a desired optimal ratio for each pop class that the population of the territory will slowly drift towards, determined by the sum of all pop ratio modifiers (Noble ratio Noble Desired Ratio, Citizen ratio Citizen Desired Ratio, Freeman ratio Freeman Desired Ratio, Tribesman ratio Tribesman Desired Ratio, and Slave ratio Slave Desired Ratio) that apply to the territory and its owner. Some modifiers are local and apply only to a single territory (Local Desired Ratio), some apply to all territories in a country (National Desired Ratio), and some apply to all territories with Territory city.png city status in a country (Desired Ratio in Cities).

Despite what it might suggest, a modifier that increases the ratio of a pop class by a certain percentage does not necessarily actually increase the optimal ratio of that pop class by that amount. Instead, the optimal ratio of each pop class is normalized by summing up all the desired ratio modifiers for that class (with a minimum desired ratio of 0) and dividing it by the total desired ratios over all 5 pop classes:


For instance, in a Territory settlement.png settlement owned by a monarchy with no other modifiers, there is a Slave ratio +10% Local Slave Desired Ratio modifier from the territory rank and Freeman ratio +2.5% National Freeman Desired Ratio from the government form that is applied. This gives a final desired ratio of for Freemen freemen and a final desired ratio of for Slaves slaves. One major effect of the way that the optimal ratio is calculated is that the effect of further modifiers is high when there are few desired ratio modifiers to begin with, but decreases rapidly as more and more are applied.

The rank of a territory is one of the main factors that affect the desired class ratios of a territory:

Territory settlement.png Settlements Territory city.png Cities Territory metropolis.png Metropolises
  • Slave ratio +10% Local Slave Desired Ratio
  • Noble ratio +15% Local Noble Desired Ratio
  • Citizen ratio +30% Local Citizen Desired Ratio
  • Freeman ratio +40% Local Freeman Desired Ratio
  • Slave ratio +25% Local Slave Desired Ratio
  • Noble ratio +10% Local Noble Desired Ratio
  • Citizen ratio +30% Local Citizen Desired Ratio
  • Freeman ratio +30% Local Freeman Desired Ratio
  • Slave ratio +15% Local Slave Desired Ratio

Each overall government form also applies further modifiers to pop ratios in each territory:

Monarchy Republic Tribal
  • Freeman ratio +2.5% National Freeman Desired Ratio
  • Freeman ratio +2.5% National Freeman Desired Ratio
  • Citizen ratio +5% Desired Citizen Ratio in Cities
  • Freeman ratio +7.5% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities
  • Noble ratio -7% National Noble Desired Ratio
  • Tribesman ratio +10% National Tribesmen Desired Ratio

Several buildings, particularly those in Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises, also modify the desired class ratios locally:

  • Noble ratio +1% Local Noble Desired Ratio per Academy Academy (Territory city.png city building)
  • Noble ratio +2% Local Noble Desired Ratio per Library Library (Territory city.png city building)
  • Citizen ratio +6% Local Citizen Desired Ratio per Court of Law Court of Law (Territory city.png city building)
  • Freeman ratio +6% Local Freemen Desired Ratio per Forum Forum (Territory city.png city building)
  • Slave ratio +6% Local Slave Desired Ratio per Mill Mill (Territory city.png city building)
  • Freeman ratio +15% Local Freemen Desired Ratio with a Barracks Barracks (Territory settlement.png settlement building)

Certain laws and government types can also affect the desired ratio of pop classes across all territories with Territory city.png city status in a country, including:

  • Freeman ratio +10% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities for an Aristocratic Monarchy
  • Freeman ratio +10% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities for a Stratocratic Monarchy
  • Slave ratio +15% Desired Slaves Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Tyrant Kings Monarchy law
  • Citizen ratio +10% Desired Citizen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Relax Citizenship Status Monarchy law
  • Freeman ratio +10% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Courts for Landowners Monarchy law
  • Slave ratio +15% Desired Slaves Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Slave Treatment Sanctions Republic law
  • Citizen ratio +10% Desired Citizen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Cultural Primacy Republic law
  • Freeman ratio +10% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Manumittance Policy Republic law
  • Slave ratio +15% Desired Slaves Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Lex Ogulnia Flag of Rome Roman Republic law
  • Citizen ratio +10% Desired Citizen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Lex Aelia Et Fufia Flag of Rome Roman Republic law
  • Freeman ratio +10% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis Flag of Rome Roman Republic law
  • Freeman ratio +20% Desired Freemen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Rights of Man Tribal law
  • Citizen ratio +20% Desired Citizen Ratio in Cities with the Enact law cost modifier.png Rights of Birth Tribal law

A number of other local modifiers can also change the pop ratios of a territory.

The overall effect of these modifiers is that Pop noble.png nobles and Citizens citizens are found almost exclusively in Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises, as well as to a lesser extent in Country capital.png capitals (even those that are Territory settlement.png settlements), while Territory settlement.png settlements will be dominated by Slaves slaves and either Freemen freemen for republics and monarchies or Tribesmen tribesmen for tribal countries. Increasing the movement and migration of pops from settlements to cities will therefore result in an overall higher proportion of Pop noble.png nobles and Citizens citizens in the country, which is generally recommended as Pop noble.png nobles and Citizens citizens are the only source of Research points.png research points which is needed to keep up in technology.

Promotion and Demotion[edit]

The pop class structure of territories will change over time to approach the optimal ratio through Local pop promotion speed.png promotion and Local pop demotion speed.png demotion. Every territory will have one pop promoting and one pop demoting at a time until the actual pop class ratio converges with the optimal ratios for each class in that territory, as long as there are pops that are eligible to be promoted or demoted. Pops cannot promote or demote if they are currently Pop assimilation.png assimilating or Policy religious conversion.png converting; as well, pops cannot promote past the assigned civic rights of its culture, which is particularly important when trying to promote pops into Citizens citizens and Pop noble.png nobles. Slaves Slave promotion (to Freemen freemen) can be blocked on a territory-specific basis using the Slave Promotion Allowed toggle in the territory population interface at the cost of Slave happiness -24% slave happiness, which can be useful to prop up Tax income.png tax income and increase the amount of trade goods produced, though fewer pops of other classes will mean less Manpower.png manpower and particularly Research points.png research points and Global state trade routes.png trade routes.

As with other pop activities, promotion and demotion of pops gain progress each month, with the exact amount of progress determined by the Local pop promotion speed.png Pop Promotion Speed and Local pop demotion speed.png Pop Demotion Speed modifiers, respectively. Once progress reaches 100%, the pop will promote by one level or demote by one level and another pop will begin to promote or demote, if there are any other pops that can do so. Note that pops will only ever promote or demote by one level regardless of how far the territory's current pop classes are from the optimal ratio - for instance, a Slaves slave will need to promote three times before it can become a Pop noble.png noble, even if there are currently no nobles in the territory. As an exception, while Tribesmen tribesmen while promote to Freemen freemen and demote to Slaves slaves as expected, Freemen freemen will demote directly down to Slaves slave status rather than passing through Tribesmen tribesmen first. Similarly, Slaves slaves can promote to both Freemen freemen or Tribesmen tribesmen, depending on the current situation.

The base Local pop promotion speed.png promotion and Local pop demotion speed.png demotion speed depends on the original class of the pop (not the class it is promoting/demoting to), with Pop noble.png nobles and Tribesmen tribesmen particularly slow to promote or demote:

Promotion speed

  • Citizens Citizen Promoting: +3
  • Freemen Freeman Promoting: +4
  • Tribesmen Tribesman Promoting: +1
  • Slaves Slave Promoting: +4

Demotion speed

  • Pop noble.png Noble Demoting: +1
  • Citizens Citizen Demoting: +2
  • Freemen Freeman Demoting: +5
  • Tribesmen Tribesman Demoting: +1

Local pop promotion speed.png Promotion speed is then affected by many other modifiers, including:

  • +2.5% for each Population.png pop in the territory
  • +2.5% for each Global state trade routes.png trade route in the province (including both import and export routes)
  • +2.5% for each Ability road building.png outgoing road
  • -10% for each point of Unrest.png unrest
  • -25% in Territory settlement.png settlements
  • +10% in Territory metropolis.png metropolises
  • +25% in the Country capital.png capital
  • +10% in Province capital province capitals
  • +10% for Port icon.png ports
  • +25% with a capital surplus of Livestock livestock
  • +10% with the Invention.png Granted Manumission invention (requires Civic power.png Civic Advances 10)
  • +15% per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +15% with the Policy social mobility.png Social Mobility governor policy
  • +10% with the Invention.png Granted Manumission invention (requires Civic power.png Civic Advances 10)
  • +20% with the Invention.png Gradated Citizenship invention (requires Civic power.png Civic Advances 17)
  • +25% for Federated Tribes
  • +0.025 for each point of positive Centralization.png centralization
  • +6 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Military Settlement Policy Republic law
  • +6 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Lex Servilia Glaucia Flag of Rome Roman Republic law
  • +2 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Sedentary Bureaucracy Tribal law
  • +25% if the country is Religious power.png Jain
  • +10% with Flag of Messenia Helot Heritage (Messenia)
  • +10% with Bosporan Heritage
  • -10% with Flag of Elea Elean Heritage (Elea)
  • +0.20% for each point of revanchism

Similarly, modifiers to Local pop demotion speed.png demotion speed include:

  • +2.5% for each Population.png pop in the territory
  • +1% for each Ability road building.png outgoing road
  • +10% for each point of Unrest.png unrest
  • +33% if the Monthly food.png food supply of the province reaches 0 and population is dying of starvation
  • +10% if the territory is currently occupied or under siege
  • +10% if the territory was recently plundered by Pirate haven.png pirates
  • +5% if the Religious power.png dominant religion is not the state religion
  • +15% per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +15% with the Policy social mobility.png Social Mobility governor policy
  • +10% per governor Civic power.png finesse plus a base of +10% with the Harsh treatment.png Harsh Treatment governor policy
  • +6 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Relocation Policy Republic law
  • +6 with the Enact law cost modifier.png Lex Papia de Peregrinis Flag of Rome Roman Republic law