The government of a state defines many of its possibilities and regulates how its internal politics work. The player plays as the state, and can therefore change the government of it. Please consult List of all states in Imperator: Rome for an overview in tabular form.
- 1 Republics
- 2 Monarchies
- 3 Tribal
- 4 Government reform and conversion
- 4.1 Abandon Sedentary Lifestyle
- 4.2 Form Tribal Kingdom
- 4.3 Embrace Autocracy
- 4.4 Embrace Democracy
- 4.5 Investigate Tribal Reform
- 4.6 Adopt Plutocratic Monarchy
- 4.7 Embrace an Aristocratic Society
- 4.8 Adopt Stratocratic Monarchy
- 4.9 Proclaim Theocratic Monarchy
- 4.10 Enact Plutocratic Republic
- 4.11 Promote Oligarchy
- 4.12 Enshrine Aristocracy
- 4.13 Proclaim Theocratic Republic
- 4.14 Proclaim Dictatorship
- 4.15 Imperial Ambition
- 4.16 Divine Sanction
Republics are defined first and foremost by the sharing of power between its citizens or upper class, depending on the type. Rulers are chosen by election based on a character's popularity and prominence and serve only for a fixed, usually relatively short term, meaning that republics will tend to cycle through different characters quite quickly and are not quite as involved in playing dynastic games. Republics are also marked by the presence of a Senate whose approval is required for most government actions, made up of a number of factions who may give various bonuses but also seek to advance their goals and interests.
Republican governments are most common among the Greek city-states as well as the Italic and Punic realms of the Western Mediterranean, but can also be found in the emporiums of the Horn of Africa and the Persian Gulf as well as the warrior confederations of Punjab.
Unless specified otherwise, all Republics have the following base characteristics:
- National civilization value: +35%
- Each ruler must be at least 35 to be elected.
- Each ruler reigns for 5 years.
- Each ruler can be re-elected every 10 years.
- Character loyalty: +5
- Changing governor policy cost: −10%
- Desired citizen ratio in cities: +5%
- Desired freemen ratio in cities: +10%
|Republic type||Idea slots||Base modifiers||Government bonus||Description|
|Aristocratic Republic||2 Military, 1 Oratory||Has co-ruler||Character loyalty: +5, National freeman happiness: +10%||Whilst outwardly democratic, an Aristocratic Republic limits leadership to those who enjoy high status.|
|Democratic Republic||1 Military, 1 Civic, 1 Oratory||National civilization value: +30%, Minimum election age 25||National freeman happiness: +10%||This system of government gives all eligible citizens a voice, through the election of representatives to a senate, or council.|
|Oligarchic Republic||1 Civic, 2 Oratory||Minimum election age 40||Monthly wages: −10%, National citizen happiness: +15%||An Oligarchic Republic restricts positions of power to a wealthy or powerful minority.|
|Plutocratic Republic||2 Civic, 1 Religious||(default)||Capital import routes: +1, National commerce income: +10%||Primarily concerned with the acquisition of wealth, Plutocratic Republics can be found ruling many of the coastal City States throughout the world.|
|Theocratic Republic||1 Oratory, 2 Religious||(default)||Omen power: +15%, State religion happiness: +10%||The priesthood will enshrine democracy into the very tenets of our faith!|
|Athenian Republic||1 Military, 1 Civic, 1 Oratory, 1 Religious||National civilization value: +40%, Minimum election age 25||Enact law cost: -25%, National citizen happiness: +15%||The Athenian republic is known far and wide for its integrity and strength.|
- Main article: Politics
The Senate consists of 100 seats with each seat belonging to one of five factions. Each faction has a leader, generally the most prominent character that supports that faction, who generates +0.10 monthly faction support for each point of charisma (doubled to +0.20 for the leader of the populist party), typically being the main source of the monthly support gained for a faction. The amount of support generated by the faction leader is +0.10 for each in point in the attribute applicable to the faction. The holder of the Censor office will also generate +0.10 support for the faction he/she is a part of for each statesmanship-adjusted point of charisma, and various laws and event modifiers may also affect faction support. The amount of seats each faction has changes over time based on the sum of all its support modifiers, and will slowly drift towards an equilibrium where each faction's seat share is proportional to its relative monthly support.
Depending on which faction the ruler of the republic belongs to, the republic gets various bonuses or maluses. If a nation wishes to instantly strengthen a faction's position in the Senate, a faction can be endorsed by spending 5 stability and gaining 2 tyranny to convince 10 seats to join that faction, as long as the faction being endorsed currently has less than 50 seats.
|Populist||−33% Monthly Political Influence|
There are three different categories of actions which require senate approval:
- All changing of laws require approval by the senate
- Many character interactions, such as banishing, imprisoning, etc.
- All diplomatic interactions with other nations.
The senate will block an action if fewer than 40 senators support it. If between 40 than 60 senators back the action, it can be forced through at the cost of 5 tyranny. If the Senate approves an action or not depends on its composition, and what the nation's course is. When an action is passed, it can impact the characters of the nation. Loyalty may be lost or gained depending on whether or not the faction approves of the action, and factions may also gain or lose senators.
- Main article: Position#Republic_offices
In addition to the usual four offices, republics have offices for Senate influence, a military bonus in discipline, sacrifice to the gods cost, and happiness for freemen.
Republics can empower any of the five factions for a certain bonus at the cost of political influence, but this will also increase populist faction support (except for empowering the populist faction itself). Depending on the law enacted in the Legislative Body/Assembly Endorsement category, there are may also be available interactions to get improve governor attributes or get claims on neighbouring states.
|Empower Civic Faction||
|Empower Military Faction||
|Empower Mercantile Faction||
|Empower Religious Faction||
|Empower Populist Faction|
|Summon Curiate Assembly||
|Summon Senatorial War Council||
In a monarchy, authority lies entirely in the hands of the ruler who controls the government and can generally do as he or she wishes, so long as the rest of the realm remains loyal. Monarchs sit for life with a consort to assist them and succession runs entirely along familial lines, with the throne inherited from parent to child or from one sibling to the next depending on the exact succession law. This concentration of power in a single person, however, means that much more attention must be paid to the legitimacy of the current ruler as the country sees it as well as fending off the threats of pretenders and claimants who would drive the realm into civil war in order to claim the throne for themselves.
Monarchies are common throughout the east, from the many realms of the Diadochi to the Indian dynasties spanning its north and south, as well as the smaller states of Sogdiana and the Tarim Basin and the ancient kingdoms of Nubia and Ethiopia. Some, such as Sparta or Syracusae, can also be found further to the west among the more predominant republics of the region.
Unless specified otherwise, all monarchies have the following characteristics:
- National Civilization Value: +35%
- Ruler rules for life
- The consort of the ruler is the co-ruler
|Monarchy type||Idea slots||Base modifiers||Government bonus||Description|
|Autocratic Monarchy||1 Military, 1 Civic, 1 Religious||National civilization value: +30%||National slave output: +10%||Conferring absolute power, the title of an Autocratic Monarchy is hereditary.|
|Aristocratic Monarchy||1 Military, 2 Oratory||(default)||Monthly tyranny: −0.1, National citizen happiness: +10%, Desired freemen ratio in cities: +10%||Although ruled by a hereditary monarch, power in an Aristocratic Monarchy is often conferred upon members of the nobility.|
|Stratocratic Monarchy||2 Military, 1 Oratory||Desired freemen ratio in cities: +10%||National freemen output: +10%, Character loyalty: +5,||The military is integral to a functioning stratocratic monarchy. Advised by generals and warriors, the Monarch rules by might.|
|Theocratic Monarchy||1 Oratory, 2 Religious||(default)||Omen power: +0.15, State religion happiness: +10%||A king cannot have true power unless backed by the priesthood, and invested with the power of the Divine.|
|Plutocratic Monarchy||2 Civic, 1 Religious||(default)||National commerce income: +10%, Capital import routes: +1||Largely focused on the acquisition of wealth, a plutocratic monarchy represents such nations as desire to avoid sustained conflict|
|Dictatorship||1 Military, 1 Civic, 1 Oratory, 1 Religious||Monthly tyranny: +0.04||National freeman happiness: +10%, National citizen output: +15%||A form of totalitarian government, a dictatorship places political power in the hands of a single individual.|
|Empire||1 Military, 1 Civic, 1 Oratory, 1 Religious||National civilization value: +40%||National freemen output: +15%, National slave output: +15%||An Emperor wields absolute power over the state, and usually holds sovereignty over lesser kings and nobles.|
|Imperial Cult||1 Military, 1 Civic, 1 Oratory, 1 Religious||National civilization value: +40%||National freemen output: +15%, National slave output: +15%, Omen power: +15%||In some cultures, an Emperor or Empress holds such authority that they are considered to be a messenger of the divine, or even a deity themselves.|
While a monarch typically has the authority to act without asking for approval their subject characters will still react to their actions if they do not approve of them. Legitimacy is a value between −100 and +100 and models the perceived right for the monarch to rule their country.
For the monarchies that exist in Imperator: Rome at the start of the game this was highly relevant as they were almost all established in this generation. None of them have a firm number of supporters, and many of them (like Egypt or the Seleucid Empire) have a population that considers them to be foreigners.
For each point of positive legitimacy, the country will get:
For each point of negative legitimacy, the country will get:
Legitimacy is gained from acting as a good monarch, most importantly:
Legitimacy is reduced by anything that threatens popular support for the monarchy, most importantly:
- Low ruler popularity
- War exhaustion
- Ruler corruption
- The number of employed characters that prefer another successor than the current heir to succeed (discussed in further detail below)
To help increase legitimacy you can also at any time use a government action to Strengthen Legitimacy, which gives a monthly legitimacy increase of +0.05 for 5 years at a cost of 10 political influence and a monthly increase of +0.02 while the modifier is running. Legitimacy can be strengthened multiple times with the modifiers stacking on each other, but each use of the action increases the cost of further strengthening legitimacy by +50% while it is running. There are also various indirect ways, such as Holding Games, that increase popularity and therefore indirectly legitimacy.
In a monarchy, a new ruler is not elected but will instead inherit power upon the death of the old monarch. The method for this inheritance depends on which of these succession laws the country follows. The family of the current ruler is always preferred over non-family members.
- Agnatic: Inheritance is in age order, with preference to male children of ruler.
- Agnatic-Cognatic: Inheritance in age order, children of ruler are preferred without preference in regards to gender.
- Agnatic Seniority: The male siblings of the monarch will inherit before any children.
- Egyptian Succession: Children of the ruler are preferred in order of age regardless of gender. Members of the royal family will marry their own family members (including sibling to sibling).
Successions are not always as easy as the described laws would imply. There are many examples of conflicts over who would inherit, sometimes tearing even great and otherwise stable kingdoms apart. In the government view, the four most likely characters in the country to inherit will be displayed at all times (including the current heir) together with their loyalty and the strength of their claim (according to the succession law). Every character in a monarchy also has a preferred heir out of these four. Most of the time this will be the current heir, but depending on things like friendships, skills or lack of loyalty, they can prefer one of the other heirs. It is possible to influence the choice of preferred heir towards the primary heir using the Primary Heir Attraction modifier.
Any possible successor apart from the current heir will have a ticking negative modifier to their loyalty and will normally do what they can to assemble money and supporters for the day the current monarch dies. Apart from increasing loyalty and attacking the causes for someone preferring another heir, you can ask them to support your preferred heir. As long as their loyalty is at least 50, this drastically increases their support for your current heir for a cost of 2 tyranny.
Upon succession, the current heir will become the new monarch with a starting legitimacy of 60, plus 20 times the country's religious unity, then reduced by 2 for each employed character that supported another heir.
At the time of succession, if any of the possible successors that did not gain the throne have less than 33 loyalty, they will make their displeasure known by assembling an army of as many loyal troops as they can afford. As this army will be loyal to the disloyal pretender, the army cannot be given orders and the pretender cannot be removed from command, giving a significant increase the pretender's power base and a further malus to loyalty. The presence of these armies is likely to drive the country towards a civil war, either immediately or in the long run.
In addition to the normal interactions, there are also some other special character interactions that can be used on pretenders to try to alleviate the threat:
- Encourage Deserters: Allows you to reduce the pretender army size.
- Make Mercenary: For a very large sum of gold you can send a pretender off to be a mercenary, along with their loyal troops. This will eliminate the threat to you internal stability, for now.
Meanwhile, foreign countries will have also have a new character interaction available to spend gold and political influence on increasing the size of the pretender army to drive the country further into civil war.
- Main article: Position#Monarchy_offices
The unique monarchy offices give modifiers for legitimacy, two military bonuses in morale of armies and mercenary army maintenance, as well as to sacrifice to the gods cost.
As well as the general war council interaction for granting claims, monarchies have three government-specific interactions for demanding general support for the primary heir, holding games to boost ruler popularity, and patronizing the arts for primary culture happiness and civilization level.
|Summon War Council||
|Demand Oaths of Allegiance||
|Patronize the Arts||
Migratory Tribes, Settled Tribes, and Federated Tribes make up the grand majority of the countries in Imperator. Tribal countries exist in all locations, from Europe to Arabia and the Caucasus to the interior of India and Tibet all the way to the Burmese border.
The base premise behind tribal governments is that authority is shared between the clans, represented by clan chiefs who command and maintain their own retinues of personally loyal troops. They have a significant say in the government and when a ruler dies the new ruler will be elected from among the other clan chiefs, ensuring a rotation of power between the clans. Tribes are also distinguished by their lower level of development and civilization, choosing between increasing centralization and adopting a more sedentary lifestyle that increasingly approaches that of a republic or monarchy or decentralizing the country to put a greater emphasis on a migratory lifestyle and the traditional clan structure, whose hordes will be the terror of all civilized peoples.
Unless specified otherwise, all Tribes have the following mechanics and modifiers:
- Clan chiefs and Clan retinues
- +50% Army maintenance cost
- +25% Found city cost modifier
- -50% Revoke city status cost modifier
- -50% Revoke metropolis status cost modifier
- +10% Change governor policy cost
- +5% National tribesmen desired ratio
- +2.5% Enslavement efficiency
- Enables the 'Raze City' unit ability
All tribes make use of a centralization scale that goes from −100 to +100. Centralization has a monthly based change that is largely determined the country's laws, and can also be changed through various events about dealing with the other clan chiefs. There is however no direct way to change the centralization value, using political influence or money for instance; it is only adjusted as a result of your actions and over time. The vast majority of countries are Settled Tribes at start, and some are part of larger tribal identities that can form into larger Federated Tribes.
The modifiers from centralization scale linearly. Below table shows examples.
|Centralization level||Migration cost||National tribesman output||Size of clan retinue||Pop Promotion Speed||Country civilization level|
- At −25% Centralization, a Settled or Federated Tribe can enact the Abandon Sedentary Lifestyle decision to adopt the Migratory Tribe government form.
- At +40% Centralization, a Migratory Tribe can enact the Form Tribal Kingdom decision to adopt the Settled Tribe government form.
- Many Migratory or Settled Tribes have special decisions available to unite their region after conquering it, which gives the Federated Tribe government form.
- A Settled or Federated Tribe may enact the Investigate Tribal Reform decision to unlock the Tribal Reform mission, which will allow the country to adopt either the Autocratic Monarchy or Democratic Republic government forms. Among the requirements is that the capital territory's civilization level must be at least 50. This has synergy with positive centralization.
A higher civilization value in your cities will make tribesmen unhappy to live in them (while citizens and freemen will feel more and more at home), meaning that the tribesmen will start being less productive and be more prone to generate unrest. At the start of the game the centralization levels of tribal countries all around the map will differ; they start well into the negatives for the Germanic tribes for instance, while others, like Turdetania in Hispania, start with significant positive centralization.
Clan chiefs and retinues
- Main article: Clan chief
A tribal government shares its power between clan chiefs, which are the heads of the major families, or clans, of the tribe. The government head is always one of the clan chiefs, with the one with the highest attributes elected on succession; as family heirs are not considered in tribal elections, the cheiftainship will always rotate between the clans to at least some degree. The military might of the tribe is divested in clan chiefs in the form of the clan chiefs' personal retinues.
Clan retinues are special units that are recruited and reinforced by the clan chiefs themselves. They do not use the manpower pool of the country and their upkeep (which is halved) is paid by the clan chief that owns that rather than the state, but cannot be directly controlled by the player. Since retinue troops are always loyal to their clan chief, these armies also contribute to their clan chief's power base, which can have a significant impact on the loyalty of your clan chiefs if they are large compared to the size of the country's total military. Their presence also means that there are always armies ready to provoke a civil war, should you not be able to maintain the loyalty of your clan chiefs. When a clan chief dies his retinues are transferred to the player, who can decide to disband it or not. The player can decide in the Government tab which unit types clan retinues will use; because of that a valid strategy is to force clan chiefs to build expensive and strong units in retinues, such as heavy cavalry or elephants, that will cost no money to maintain nor manpower to reinforce.
Every tribal country will has a base of 3 clan chiefs, which is increased for each country rank the country attains.
Migrating and settling
Migratory Tribes have the ability to migrate, and all tribal governments can become a Migratory Tribe if they reach a sufficient degree of decentralization. Migration can be initiated in any city that has at least 3 pops and where the primary culture and religion are dominant, by clicking on the Migrate button in the city section of the province interface. It has a base cost of 8 stability (reduced by negative centralization).
Migrating will turn up to 20 of the pops in the city into light infantry. This creates an army that can move around like any army, except it does not require military access to cross foreign lands. All types of pops can be used to create a migration cohort but once settled (see below) always turn into tribesmen. To migrate is to let go of any old specialized roles they may have had in their original location.
Any army that has more migration cohorts than there are pops in its current location can settle in that location. This will turn all migration units into tribesmen of your culture and religion and settle them in this city, taking ownership of it. In order to be able to settle the location must also either be uncolonized or under your control in a war. Like colonization and annexation, all pre-existing pops are kept.
Even if a country loses its last city it still remains playable as long as the migration units remain, meaning you can quite literally uproot your entire society and resettle somewhere else.
- Main article: Position#Tribal_offices
Tribes offices give two military bonuses in cohort recruit speed and manpower recovery speed and have happiness modifiers for tribesmen and citizens. Notably, their aggressive expansion office is weaker than in republics or monarchies, which is compensated for by a stronger national tax modifer.
As well as the general war council interaction for granting claims, tribal nations have three government-specific interactions for increasing enslavement efficiency, holding games to boost ruler popularity, and encouraging migration in order to reduce tribal centralization.
|Summon War Council||
|Assemble Raiding Parties|
|Encourage Tribal Migration||
Government reform and conversion
- Main article: Decisions#Government_conversion_decisions
Apart from the Tribal Reform missions and various country-specific events and mission tasks, all government changes are done through specific decisions. Swapping between government types of the same group can generally be done freely given the country meets the requirements, but switching between different groups is significantly more difficult (if possible at all). The possible government conversions are as follows:
- Settled Tribes and Migratory Tribes can always convert between each other. Federated Tribes can also become Migratory Tribes, but the only way to form a Federated Tribe is through certain formable nation decisions.
- Settled and Federated Tribes can reform into either an Autocratic Monarchy or a Democratic Republic.
- An Autocratic Monarchy can reform into one of the more advanced monarchy types (Aristocratic, Stratocratic, Plutocratic, or Theocratic Monarchy). These four can interconvert between each other, but cannot go back to becoming an Autocratic Monarchy.
- Similarly, a Democratic Republic can reform into one of the more advanced republic types (Aristocratic, Oligarchic, Plutocratic, or Theocratic Republic). These four can also interconvert between each other, but cannot go back to becoming an Democratic Republic.
- Any of the four advanced republic types can become a Dictatorship to adopt a monarchical government form.
- Any of the five base monarchy types (Autocratic, Aristocratic, Stratocratic, Plutocratic, or Theocratic Monarchy), as well as Dictatorships, can become an Empire.
- All Monarchical governments except for Autocratic monarchies and Dictatorships can become an Imperial Cult.
Other conversions are possible through special country-specific events or missions. These decisions can be found in.
Abandon Sedentary Lifestyle
Times are changing and this land can no longer support our great tribe. It is time to once more embrace the traditions of our ancestors, and prepare for migrations to more peaceful and fertile lands.
Form Tribal Kingdom
We have found a good home, it is time we settle down and adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. Let us proclaim ourselves a kingdom, separating ourselves from the migratory tribes to which we once belonged.
[COUNTRY.GetRuler.GetName], inspired by the Kings and Tyrants of foreign lands, might exert greater authority by discarding the tribal trappings of our ancestors.
Note: This is the AI path for reforming from a Tribal government form to a Monarchy. Human-controlled countries must take the Investigate Tribal Reform decision and proceed along the Tribal Reform mission tree instead.
The Chiefs, Elders, and Magistrates of [COUNTRY.GetName] believe that adopting a more constitutional form of democracy will allow us to prosper fully.
Note: This is the AI path for reforming from a Tribal government form to a Republic. Human-controlled countries must take the Investigate Tribal Reform decision and proceed along the Tribal Reform mission tree instead.
Investigate Tribal Reform
It is time for our people to consider new methods of rule. Foreign ideals flood our country - can we truly remain a nomadic people?
Note: This is the player path for reforming from a Tribal government form to a Monarchy or Republic. AI-controlled countries will take the Embrace Autocracy or Embrace Democracy decisions instead.
Adopt Plutocratic Monarchy
The lure of profit and prosperity is something we must enshrine into our very constitution; abandoning the trappings of lesser kingdoms.
Embrace an Aristocratic Society
Those of noble blood should not be required to mingle with commoners...
Adopt Stratocratic Monarchy
The [COUNTRY.GetAdjective] people yearn to show the world their might. By stratifying our very society in a militarized hierarchy, we shall show the glory of [COUNTRY.GetName] to all!
Proclaim Theocratic Monarchy
The glory of the divine shall shine upon [COUNTRY.GetRuler.GetName] - the [COUNTRY.GetAdjective] people are truly blessed.
Enact Plutocratic Republic
The lure of profit and prosperity is something we must enshrine into our very constitution; abandoning the trappings of lesser nations.
Constitutionalizing the inherent superiority of those who have, versus those who do not have; will ensure that [COUNTRY.GetName] maintains a prosperous government.
The ability to rule clearly runs in the family. Whilst democracy serves us well, perhaps we might ensure that the plebeian masses are prevented from interfering in government.
Proclaim Theocratic Republic
By the help of the divine, and with the zeal of her people, [COUNTRY.GetName] shall endure for all eternity!
It is becoming increasingly apparent that power cannot be trusted in the hands of the many. Absolute security demands absolute authority.
[COUNTRY.GetRuler.GetName], resplendent in the glory of conquest, has eclipsed all other petty Kingdoms; a new title is needed for the ruler of the [COUNTRY.GetAdjective] Empire.
Few are in denial that [COUNTRY.GetRuler.GetName] is blessed. It follows, therefore, that such divine heritage can only be the property of a divine being.