Infrastructure

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Territories can be upgraded with a variety of infrastructure to improve the Population output output and Pop happy.png happiness of their pops, as well as its accessibility and defensibility, at the cost of Wealth gold. Investing in infrastructure can significantly improve a country's Wealth income, Manpower.png manpower, Research points.png research, and more, and is generally most effective in more highly populated territories.

Buildings

A wide variety of different buildings can be built in territories to give a wide variety of local modifiers, such as improving pop Population output output and Pop happy.png happiness, adjusting the ratio of pop classes, driving Pop assimilation.png assimilation and Policy religious conversion.png conversion, increasing the local Population capacity population capacity, adding Fort level fortifications to the area, building Port icon.png port facilities for ships, and more. The buildings available depend on the territory's rank, with different sets available to Territory settlement.png settlements and Territory city.png cities/Territory metropolis.png metropolises; some of the Territory settlement.png settlement buildings are also restricted based on the trade good that the territory produces.

Every building has an associated Wealth gold cost and Time build time, which are modified by the Build cost.png build cost and Build time.png build time modifiers, respectively. Each territory can only build one building at a time, though it is possible to make a queue of buildings to construct. Once it is built, buildings do not cost any maintenance or upkeep. Any building in any owned territory can be torn down instantly at any time, which returns 1/4th of the its current Build cost.png build cost to the treasury (also affected by the Build cost.png build cost modifier), regardless of when or by whom the building was built. Some events and mission results may automatically construct a building in a territory.

All

Building Province modifiers Cost Cost Time Time Notes
Fortress Fortress
  • Manpower.png -5% Local manpower
  • Fort level +1 Fort level
  • Fort defense +5% Local fort defense
  • Civilization.png +1% Local civilization level
150 720 days Adds Fort level 1 fort level to the territory.

See Fortification.png Fort for other effects.
Cost is additionally modified by the Fort cost Fortress Building Cost modifier.

Port Port
  • Population capacity +1 Population capacity
  • Ship recruit speed +15% Ship recruit speed
  • Migration attraction +0.1 Migration attraction
  • Migration speed +0.1 Migration speed
150 180 days Can only be built on Coastal Sea coasts, or where ports exist at the start of the game.

Adds Port icon.png 1 port level to the territory.
See Port icon.png Port for other effects.

City/Metropolis only

Building Province modifiers Cost Cost Time Time Notes
Aqueduct Aqueduct
  • Population capacity +4 Population capacity
150 180 days

Requires at least Civilization.png 30 civilization value

Granary Granary
  • Civilization.png +2% Local civilization level
  • Global food capacity.png +200 Provincial food capacity
100 180 days
Library Library
  • Research points.png +5% Local research points
  • Civilization.png +2% Local civilization level
  • Policy religious conversion.png +2.5% Pop conversion speed
100 180 days
Market Marketplace
  • Civilization.png +2% Local civilization level
  • Pop assimilation.png +2.5% Population assimilation speed
  • Local base trade routes.png +2.5% Local base trade routes
100 180 days
Training Camp Training Camp
  • Manpower.png +10% Local manpower
  • Civilization.png +2% Local civilization level
100 180 days
Tax Office Tax Office
  • National tax +10% Local tax
  • Civilization.png +2% Local civilization level
100 180 days
Earthworks Earthworks
  • Population capacity -10% Population capacity
  • Fort defense +25% Local fort defense
  • Attrition.png +1.00 Hostile attrition
  • Combat width -3.00 Combat width
150 1440 days Limit 1 per territory.
Requires the Invention.png Fortified Camps Military power.png Martial invention
Requires at least Fort level 1 fort level.
Foundry Foundry
  • Tax income.png +25% Local Tax
  • Research points.png +25% Local Research Points
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Goods from slaves.png -4 slaves need for resource surplus
300 180 days Limit 1 per territory.
Requires the Invention.png Blacksmith Apprentices Military power.png Martial invention.
Temple Great Temple
  • Province loyalty +0.05 Territory provincial loyalty
  • State religion happiness +10% State religion happiness
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Policy religious conversion.png +2.00 Pop conversion speed
300 360 days Limit 1 per territory.
Requires the Invention.png Open Religion Religious power.png Religious invention.
Theater Grand Theater
  • Province loyalty +0.05 Territory provincial loyalty
  • Integrated culture happiness +10% Integrated culture happiness
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Pop assimilation.png +2.00 Pop assimilation speed
300 360 days Limit 1 per territory.
Requires Invention.png Gradual Economic Integration Oratory power.png Oratory invention.
Academy Academy
  • Civilization.png +3% Local civilization level
  • Civilization.png +0.01% Monthly civilization change
  • Noble happiness +4% Local noble happiness
  • Noble ratio +5% Local noble desired ratio
150 180 days Limit 3 per territory.
Court of Law Court of Law
  • Province loyalty +0.01 Territory provincial loyalty
  • Civilization.png +3% Local civilization level
  • Citizen happiness +6% Local citizen happiness
  • Citizen ratio +10% Local citizen desired ratio
150 180 days Limit 3 per territory.
Forum Forum
  • Civilization.png +3% Local civilization level
  • Monthly food.png +2.5% Local monthly food modifier
  • Freeman happiness +6% Local freemen happiness
  • Freeman ratio +10% Local freemen desired ratio
150 180 days Limit 3 per territory.
Mill Mill
  • Civilization.png +3% Local civilization level
  • Slave output +6% Local slave output
  • Slave happiness +6% Local slave happiness
  • Slave ratio +10% Local slave desired ratio
150 180 days Limit 3 per territory.

Settlement Only

Building Province modifiers Cost Cost Time Time Notes
Barracks Barracks
  • Manpower.png +20% Local manpower
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Migration speed -25% Pop migration speed
  • Freeman happiness +8% Local freemen happiness
  • Freeman ratio +15% Local freemen desired ratio
200 180 days Limit 1 per territory.
Mine Mine
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Goods from slaves.png -5 Slaves needed for local surplus
  • Migration speed -25% Pop migration speed
200 730 days Limit 1 per territory.
Tribal Settlement Tribal Settlement
  • Population capacity +10% Population capacity
  • Citizen ratio -2.5% Local citizen desired ratio
  • Tribesman output +30% Local tribesmen output
  • Tribesman happiness +8% Local tribesmen happiness
200 730 days Limit 1 per territory.
Slave Estate Slave Estate
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Migration speed -25% Pop migration speed
  • Monthly food.png +50% Local monthly food modifier
  • Slave output +30% Local slave output
200 730 days Limit 1 per territory.
Farming Settlement Farming Settlement
  • Civilization.png +5% Local civilization level
  • Goods from slaves.png -5 Slaves needed for local surplus
  • Migration speed -25% Migration speed
  • Monthly food.png +50% Local monthly food modifier
200 730 days Limit 1 per territory.
Provincial Legation Provincial Legation
  • Migration speed +75% Pop migration speed
  • Pop assimilation.png +15% Pop assimilation speed
200 180 days Limit 1 per territory.

Building slots

Local building slot.png The number of buildings that can be built in any particular territory is limited by that territory's number of building slots. Each building takes up 1 slot, including those under construction, and no buildings can be built in a territory that has filled up all its slots. Territories that have more buildings than their number of permitted slots - for instance, after losing population during a sack - will lose any buildings over the limit. Gw map icon.png Wonders also take up a building slot, and require at least one empty building slot to begin construction.

Territory settlement.png Settlements normally only have 1 building slot (though settlement buildings are in general stronger than other buildings), which can be increased by the Local building slot.png global settlement building slots modifier to a maximum of 2 by researching the Invention.png Rural Planning Civic faction Civic invention (though each settlement building will still have its territory cap of one). Building slots mostly become relevant when settlements are upgraded to Territory city.png cities, which gives a base of 2 extra building slots and an additional 1 for every Population.png 10 pops in the city. If a city is further upgraded to a Territory metropolis.png metropolis the base number of building slots is increased to 4. Other important sources of building slots in Territory city.png cities and Territory metropolis.png metropolises, given by the Local building slot.png local city building slots and Local building slot.png global city building slots modifier, include:

  • +1 for the Country capital.png country capital
  • +1 for Holy Site.png holy sites
  • +1 for all Territory city.png cities with a Gw map icon.png tier 3 wonder with the Gw effect civil engineering.png Engineering effect
  • +2 for all Territory city.png cities with a Gw map icon.png tier 4 wonder with the Gw effect civil engineering.png Engineering effect
  • +2 for all Territory city.png cities with the Invention.png Urban Planning Civic faction Civic invention
  • +1 for all Territory city.png cities with the Military tradition.png Legacy of the Builders military tradition (Levantine and Arabian traditions)
  • +1 for each Religious province investment Make Religious Endowments religious province investment

Great wonders

Main article: Great wonders

Gw map icon.png Great wonders are special buildings that can be constructed in territories and give powerful bonuses to their local province or owner. Unlike standard buildings, wonders can be customized with various designs, materials, and effects, and are a significant investment that only the large and wealthy empires will be able to afford. As the centerpiece and defining feature of the local area, each territory can normally only support one great wonder, though certain wonders that are built by event can coexist with each other in the same territory. Uniquely, wonders usually give strong nation-wide effects that grow over time as the wonder's fame and prestige increases.

At the start of the game, there are a number of ancient wonders scattered all over the map, from the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in Rome to the Great Pyramids of Giza and the University of Taxila. Building additional wonders requires the Heirs of Alexander DLC.

Roads

Roads built by a Roman army.

Ability road building.png Roads can be built by Land combat.png armies to connect two adjacent territories at the cost of Wealth gold, reducing the Movement cost movement cost by 50% and effectively doubling the army movement speed between them, making them highly desirable for larger empires that would benefit from being able to move armies between their provinces more quickly. In addition to the army movement bonuses, connecting a territory to the road network also gives a minor boost to development, trade, and pop mobility, making them useful to build in highly populated developed territories as well as connecting frontier areas. Roads also appear graphically on the map as the network is built and extended, generally being most prominent on the terrain mapmode; if a road is built over a river, a bridge will appear. Unlike with buildings, roads are not associated with individual territories, but instead with pairs of adjacent territories (including possibly those connected over a strait); it is therefore possible (and common) for a territory to be a part of multiple different road segments. For every road connecting a territory to one of its adjacent territories, a territory will get the following stackable modifiers:

  • Civilization.png +0.001% Monthly Civilization Change
  • Policy religious conversion.png +2.5% Pop Conversion Speed
  • Pop assimilation.png +2.5% Pop Assimilation Speed
  • Local pop promotion speed.png +2.5% Pop Promotion Speed
  • Local pop demotion speed.png +1% Pop Demotion Speed
  • Migration attraction +0.05 Migration Attraction
  • Migration speed +0.1 Pop Migration Speed
  • Local base trade routes.png +5% Local Base Trade Routes Modifier

There are two ways to build roads - a special, cheaper method for countries with access to Military tradition.png Italic tradition groups, and more generic one that is available to all countries. Once a road is built, it cannot be removed or destroyed, even if the territories it connects are completely depopulated.

Regular roads

Most countries need to reach at least Civic power.png Level 5 of civic advances to begin building roads.

Roads can be built using the Build road Build Road unit ability toggle, which can be activated if all of the following conditions are met:

  • The unit is an Land combat.png army
  • The army has at least Land combat.png 10 cohorts
  • The army is not in combat, moving, or exiled
  • The army is in a territory that is owned by the current country, or by one of its Vassalized.png subjects
  • The army either has no commander, or its commander is loyal (i.e. has at least Loyalty.png 34 loyalty)

Any type of army, even Levy.png levies and Mercenary maintenance.png mercenaries, can build roads, if they meet all of the requirements.

When the Build road build road toggle is on, road construction will begin when the unit moves from one territory to another, as long as both territories either owned and controlled by the army's owner or one of their Vassalized.png subjects, or are uncolonized (including uninhabitable territories, though not impassable terrain). When the army arrives in that other territory, if the two territories do not already have a road between them, the road will be instantly built at a base cost of Wealth 50 gold. This cost is affected by the Build roads cost modifier.png build roads cost modifier, given only by the Civic power.png Civic inventions Invention.png Gromatici (Build roads cost modifier.png -25%) and Invention.png De Architectura (Build roads cost modifier.png -15%). If the army has at least Engineer cohort.png 1 engineer cohort, the cost of building a road is instead lowered to to Wealth 10 gold (not affected by any modifiers).

WhileBuild road building roads, the following modifiers are applied to the army:

  • Morale.png −25% Morale of Armies
  • Army movement without roads −70% Army movement without roads
  • Army maintenance cost.png +120% Legion maintenance cost

The toggle will be turned off if the army becomes ineligible to build roads, or if the army finishes moving to a new territory without a road on the traversed connection and the country does not have enough money to build a road.

Military roads

If a country has access to Military tradition.png Roman traditions (in the Italic traditions group), adopting the Roman Roads tradition will give access to the special Build road Build Military Road toggle, even if it does not currently meet the technology requirements for building roads normally. Build road Building military roads is largely the same as building regular roads, with the main differences that the road-building army can be smaller, requiring only Land combat.png 5 cohorts, but must be a Legion.png legion, and that each road costs only Cost 25 gold per territory connection. However, note that the cost is not affected by the Build roads cost modifier.png build roads cost modifier. As with normal road building, the cost is lowered to to Wealth 10 gold (also not affected by any modifiers) if the army has at least Engineer cohort.png 1 engineer cohort.

In addition, a reduced set of modifiers is applied to the road-building army, without the increased maintenance cost or morale penalty:

  • Army movement without roads −70% Army movement without roads

Forts

See also: Siege

Fortification.png Forts can be built in territories to block the advance of enemy armies and protect important cities and strategic points from being easily captured. The size of a fort is determined by its fort level, where 1 is the minimum and 0 indicates the lack of a fort, and every Fortress fortress building giving 1 fort level. This means that settlements are typically restricted to a fort level of 1, while cities and metropolises are able to support larger forts.

To fully occupy a province, the attacker must besiege its Province capital capital and any forts in the province, after which the rest will be automatically occupied after a few days. An unprotected territory takes only 15 days to occupy, while one with a fort will take multiple months to siege down unless the attacking army launches an Assault ability.png assault (usually taking heavy casualties). Each fort level gives -1 to siege progress and provides the base Garrison garrison of 500 per fort level, adjusted by the garrison size modifier. A besieging army needs to have at least 2000 men per each fort level to begin a siege, no matter how big the garrison is. Assaulting a fort will damage the garrison, and as soon as it reaches 0, the fort will fall. When it falls (or a new fort level is built), its garrison will start replenishing at a rate of 10% of the max garrison per month.

In addition, forts exert a zone of control (ZoC) over adjacent territories. An army that enters a hostile zone of control will not be able to progress further, and must either proceed to the fort and besiege it or return to the territory they came from. Flag of Barbarians Barbarians ignore all zones of control and can move freely, but territories in the zone of control of a friendly fort will not lose Civilization.png civilization value if occupied. Friendly forts also negate Attrition.png attrition from deserts or winter, and will automatically occupy any enemy-controlled territories in its zone of control unless there is a hostile army there.

Every Fortification.png fort level costs a base of Wealth 0.40 gold in maintenance each month, adjusted by the Fort maintenance cost.png fort maintenance modifier, except for the first capital fort.

Every province has a certain Fortification.png fort infrastructure capacity value, with default capacity of 5. The first fort in a territory uses up 3 points of capacity, while subsequent fort levels only use 1, and exceeding the limit gives a Fort maintenance cost.png +25% maintenance modifier for all forts in the province by for every point over the limit. This means, with the default limit of 5, two level 1 forts in one province would use 6 points and cost each per month in maintenance (Wealth 1 in total), while a single level 2 fort costs Wealth 0.8 gold per month to maintain. Capacity can be increased through the Military province investment Fortify Province province investment, several Military tradition.png military traditions, some Invention.png inventions, and a Gw map icon.png wonder effect.

Every territory in the province gets Unrest.png -0.25 unrest for every used fort infrastructure point, which means spreading forts out over a number of territories is much more efficient at suppressing unrest than concentrating them in a single territory, even if more expensive. As maintaining forts can be costly, it is often a good idea to remove extraneous forts that no longer serve any meaningful defensive and unrest-suppressing purpose.

Border forts

See also: Colonization

A country that has adopted the Military tradition.png Castra military tradition from the Italic tribe traditions tree can have an army build a Construct border fort border fort in an owned frontier or neighbouring uncolonized territory. An army can do this action if it meets all the following conditions:

  • The unit is an Land combat.png army
  • The army has a loyal commander (defined as Loyalty.png 34 loyalty or higher).
  • The army is not in combat, moving, sieging, or exiled.
  • The army has at least Land combat.png 5 cohorts, including at least one that is not Loyalty gain chance.png loyal to anyone. (This requirement implictly means that Mercenary maintenance.png mercenaries cannot be used)
  • The territory the army is in:
    • Doesn't already have a Fortress fortress
    • Is uncolonized, or owned by the current country and borders a foreign (not uncolonized) territory
    • Has a free Local building slot.png building slot
    • Borders an owned and controlled territory
    • Is not next to any other owned territory with a Fortress fortress

When the ability is activated, the country loses Manpower.png 3000 manpower and builds a Fortress fortress in the territory. The country then gains ownership of the province if it was previously uncolonized, in which case the territory will also gain a Freemen freeman pop of the primary culture and religion. Finally, one random cohort becomes Loyalty gain chance.png loyal to the commander, unless the general is the ruler of a non-republic, in which case the country gains Tyranny 1 tyranny instead. This ability can notably be used to colonize territories even if there is no neighbouring territory with a dominant integrated culture and state religion.

Ports

Port icon.png Ports are buildings that can be built in any Coastal Sea coastal territories, as well as certain inland territories on River major rivers (those that begin the game with a Port icon.png port). They allow Naval combat.png ships to dock (including quickly embarking and disembarking troops), be built, repair, and supply, and are important for any nation that seeks to maintain a significant navy. The number of ports in a territory is the territory's port level, which in addition to the effects from the port buildings themselves also determines what types of ships it can build and repair: the light Unit liburnian.png liburnians and Unit trireme.png triremes only require a level 1 port, the medium Unit tetrere.png tetreres and Unit hexere.png hexeres require at least level 3 ports, while the very heavy Unit octere.png octeres and Unit mega-polyreme.png mega-polyremes can only be built and repaired at ports that are at least level 5.

In addition to effects from the building itself, every Coastal Sea coastal territory with at least one port gets the following modifiers:

  • Supply limit.png +5% Supply Limit
  • Local pop promotion speed.png +10% Pop Promotion Speed

For each territory in a province that has at least one port, the province also gets the following modifier:

  • Migration speed +2.5% Pop Migration Speed

Note that neither of these effects stack if territory has more than one port.

Pirate havens

Certain ports are home to Pirate haven.png pirate havens where groups of pirates are based from. These pirate havens are present in certain ports at the beginning of the game, and in addition to giving an economic boost of Tax income.png +20% Local Tax and Global population growth.png +0.01% Local Population Growth to their territory they host pirate fleets, always composed of all light ships, which can rented out as naval mercenaries at times of war. When not being hired pirate fleets will eventually grow restless and go on raids, at which point the fleet while become hostile to all other navies and travel to nearby unfortified ports to plunder them, giving Tax income.png -25% Local Tax and Local pop demotion speed.png +10% Demotion Speed to the plundered territories.

If pirates grow to be too much of a problem, their havens can be destroyed using the Root out pirates Root Out Pirates army ability on any controlled territory once the anti-pirate law has been passed, including those belonging to other countries that have been occupied in a War.png war. This will remove the modifier (including its beneficial modifiers) and destroy the associated pirate fleet, even if it is currently out on a raid. Alternatively, pirates can be actively encouraged by passing the pro-pirate law, which will create a new Pirate haven.png pirate haven in one of the country's ports to increase its prosperity and provide more available naval mercenaries at the expense of the nearby coasts.

Destroying all ports in a pirate haven will also force any local pirate/mercenary fleets to disband, though this will not remove the pirate haven itself. If the port is ever rebuilt, the pirate fleet will eventually reappear.